2020-07-05

A desperate law of physics, physicist:would rather not find it

By yqqlm yqqlm

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Human modern scientific and technological civilization is based on physics, Newton’s classic physics allows rockets to fly into space, Maxwell’s electromagnetism has developed modern electrotechnics, and Einstein’s theory of relativity has made navigation satellite positioning precise, Quantum mechanics established the modern electronics industry. It can be said that without the development of physics, there will be no modern scientific and technological civilization.

The development of physics is inseparable from the discovery of the laws of physics. The new laws may herald new physics. A few basic laws of physics can build a physical building and guide the development of science and technology. In the past few hundred years, physics and technology have developed so vigorously.

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Among these laws of physics, there is one that makes physicists”love and hate”. Some scientists prefer this law in the universe, and some scientists prefer not to discover this law. This law is the Second Law of Thermodynamics, or it has a louder name, the law of entropy increase.

The first law of thermodynamics shows that energy is conserved and cannot be created out of thin air, so it is impossible to try to create a perpetual motion machine that can continuously output energy. Since then, some people have put forward another type of perpetual motion machine. If heat is absorbed from nature and the perpetual motion machine is driven to rotate, so that the energy source continues to do work externally, and does not violate the law of conservation of energy, this is the second type of perpetual motion. motivation.

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But with the discovery of the second law of thermodynamics, humans realized that the second type of perpetual motion is also unrealistic. Although energy is conserved, effective energy will be less and less. The useful energy of coal is very high, but the energy released after they are burned cannot be used for all work, and at the same time a part of waste heat will be generated.

Physicist Clausius introduced”entropy” to characterize how much useful energy. The more energy that can be used to do work, the smaller the entropy; the less useful energy, the greater the entropy. Taking coal as an example, the entropy value of unburned coal is small, and the entropy value of coal residue remaining after combustion is large.

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In an isolated system, the useful energy will be less and less, and the entropy will become bigger and bigger, this is The principle of entropy increase. If you continue to absorb heat from nature to achieve continuous work, resulting in increased useful energy, you will violate the entropy increase law, so this Perpetual motion machines cannot be created.

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On the other hand, entropy can also be used to characterize the degree of chaos in the system. The smaller the chaos of the system, the higher the degree of order, and the smaller the entropy, and vice versa. This can be described by Boltzmann entropy formula:

S=k·logW

where S is the entropy of the system; k is Boltz Mann constant; W is the number of microscopic states. The larger the value, the more disordered the system and the higher the entropy value. This is a very wonderful formula that directly links the micro and macro.

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For isolated systems, the entropy always increases spontaneously, and the degree of order becomes smaller and smaller. The principle of entropy increase is irreversible. Take the common things in life as an example-broken mirrors cannot recover spontaneously, and water and milk cannot be spontaneously separated after mixing. In a sense, the increase in entropy also represents the passage of time. Time is irreversible, and entropy will only increase.

This law of physics will deduce a desperate end of the universe-heat silence. If the universe is an isolated system, the entropy will continue to increase over time, the chaos of the universe will become greater and greater, and useful energy will gradually be consumed. Humans and other life are negative entropy bodies. In order to maintain the function, we must constantly consume useful energy, which will increase the entropy of the entire universe and accelerate the decline of the universe.

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It is estimated that the universe may consume all free energy after 10^1000 years, and the entire universe is in thermal equilibrium, reaching Heated state. At that time, the universe ceased to function and no life existed.

Many people say that the law of increase in entropy will make people feel empowered. So, do you understand anything?