2020-07-15

How long does it take to fly to the closest star to the sun with the fastest flying machine currently available?

By yqqlm yqqlm

Speed ​​has always been a huge obstacle to human development. To get rid of the gravity of the Earth, the detector must reach the speed of the second universe (11.2 kilometers per second). For the probe to fly from Earth’s orbit to the outside of the solar system, the speed must reach the third cosmic speed (16.7 kilometers per second).

The Parker probe is the fastest flying probe launched by human beings. The maximum speed of the probe at perihelion reached 192 kilometers per second, but not even one thousandth of the speed of light. However, the extremely high flying speed of the Parker probe is only a record produced under the acceleration of the sun’s gravity. In fact, when the detector approaches a massive celestial body, the speed will increase. For example, the Juno probe was very fast when approaching Jupiter, and the fastest speed when approaching Jupiter was 73 kilometers per second.

Among the probes flying out of the solar system, New Horizons should be the fastest probe currently flying, which is in space The fastest speed when flying was 21 kilometers per second. In other words, the current flying speed of the detector can reach the speed of the third universe.

The farthest detector currently flying is the traveler No. 1 is moving away from the earth at a speed of 17 kilometers per second. It is now about 22 billion kilometers away from the earth. It is about 20 light hours away from the earth at the speed of light. Voyager 1 was launched in 1977. By 2020, it had been flying in space for 43 years. Although Voyager 1 has flown over the top of the solar wind layer, Voyager 1 is still within the solar system and has not yet escaped the gravitational bondage of the sun.

Currently, human space probes generally use chemical fuel. Due to the limited fuel carried, in order to increase the speed of the probe’s flight, it is common Will use the gravitational slingshot effect to accelerate. Voyager 1 uses the gravitational slingshot effect of Jupiter belt planets to accelerate, otherwise it will be difficult to reach the third cosmic speed.

The picture above is a schematic diagram of the detector using the gravitational slingshot effect to accelerate

The speed of light is the fastest speed in the universe . The earth is 150 million kilometers away from the sun. It takes more than 8 minutes for light to reach the earth from the surface of the sun. The radius of the solar system is estimated to be one light-year (1 light-year is equal to 9.46 trillion kilometers). According to speculation, Alter cloud should exist outside the objects of Neptune and Kuiper belt, and it is completely a light year away Stellar space.

The closest star to the sun is Proxima span>, about 4.2 light-years from the sun. Light can travel through 300,000 kilometers of space per second. 4.2 light years is a straight line distance. Even if it travels at the speed of light, it will take at least 4.2 years to reach Proxima Star.

For existing aerospace technology, one light year is actually very far away, and Voyager 1 only flew 0.0023 light years. If Voyager 1 is going to Proxima Star, it will take 75,000 years to calculate in straight-line distance. The maximum speed of the Parker probe is 192 kilometers per second, which is 11.3 times the speed of Voyager 1, and it takes at least 6600 years to reach Proxima Star. At a light-year distance, the Parker probe must fly for at least 1500 years.

Now the detector usually uses chemical fuel to burn out the working fluid to generate thrust. According to calculations by some scientists, the limit advancement speed of chemical fuel is 25 kilometers per second. For interstellar navigation, new energy and new propulsion technology must be used, otherwise it will always be a dream. The most promising at present may be ion propulsion technology, which is still in an experimental state.

The picture above shows the tail flame of a small ion thruster

It can be seen that humans must break through the obstacle of one light year, It should take decades. In the past half century, Voyager 1 will still be the furthest probe.

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