How long will it take for humans to know after the sun goes out? Is it 8 minutes? May take tens of thousands of years
For the life of the earth, water, oxygen and sufficient sunlight are the three essential requirements. Without any one, life cannot survive and continue. The life of the earth mainly lives on the surface of the earth, with 71%of the surface of the ocean and sufficient oxygen. Of the three major elements required for life, the earth itself occupies two, and the other abundant sunlight is not available on the earth itself. We need other sources, and this source is the stellar sun at the center of the solar system.
The sun has played an important role in the birth of life on earth. Without it, the earth would not have liquid water, a thick atmosphere, a warm climate, and nature would not There is no birth of human beings. It can be said that the sun is also regarded as the mother of life on earth. For people in ancient times, they never thought what would happen if the sun no longer glows and heats up one day?
Because in the eyes of the ancients Here, the sun is an eternal fireball, it will not extinguish, it will always shine on the earth. But when mankind entered the age of technology, with the help of technology, we had more knowledge about the sun, we realized that the sun is just a star, and its lifespan will vary greatly according to the quality.
A massive star may have a life span of only tens of millions of years, while a yellow dwarf star like the sun has a relatively long life span of about 10 billion years. The sun is now burning for 5 billion years and half of its life has been completed. In another 5 billion years, the sun will be completely extinguished, at which time the earth will no longer be shining with sunlight.
So someone once raised an interesting topic:how long will it take for humans to know after the sun goes out? Some people may say, this is not a very simple math problem? The earth is about 149.6 million kilometers from the sun, and the speed of light is 300,000 kilometers per second. The final calculated time is about 8 minutes and 18 seconds. In other words, after the sun goes out, no more photons will reach the earth after 8 minutes and 18 seconds, and the earth will fall into permanent darkness.
So is this time accurate ? After the sun goes out, we will know after 8 minutes, can we see the permanent darkness coming? If you think so, you are wrong. After the sun goes out, the time for the permanent darkness left on the earth is much longer than we thought. It may take tens of thousands of years. What is going on?
It’s not difficult to uncover this mystery. First of all, we have to understand that the combustion of the sun is completely different from ordinary combustion. It is a nuclear fusion combustion mode. We can think of the sun as It is a huge nuclear fusion reactor, its interior is filled with hydrogen and helium, and nuclear fusion is always in progress in the center. This is also the source of solar energy.
In the process of generating nuclear fusion, the energy released by the sun every second is equivalent to the sum of the simultaneous explosion of 1.8 billion nuclear weapons. The surface of the sun is in a burning state. In fact, the photons running from the inside of the sun are acting. How long does it take for the light released from the center of the sun to reach the surface of the sun?
Some people may think that light The speed is so fast, even from the center of the sun to the surface of the sun is a very short time, is this really the case? The true answer may make many people feel inconceivable. Photons in the center of the sun want to come to the surface of the sun, but it is not an easy task. It needs a lot of obstacles to achieve it. This is a long process.
The internal structure of the sun can be much more complicated than we think of a nuclear fusion reactor. Because the sun is a huge plasma ball with a very high density, the deep nuclear fusion reflects the photons produced , Often cannot reach the surface of the sun directly. Because the interior is filled with countless electrons, ions, and atoms, photons must compete with these”obstacles” if they want to reach the surface.
After the photon is generated by nuclear fusion, it needs to interact with various substances in the process of continuously advancing outwards, and it will continue to consume the energy of the photon in this process. The photons generated at the center of the sun started out as powerful gamma rays. After reaching the surface, the energy was continuously weakened and finally turned into X-rays.
Photons from inside to surface The process of advancing is not a straight-line process. The reason is that it may collide with particles such as protons during the course of walking, thus changing the direction of advancement, so this process is a curved and tortuous process. To complete this series of tortuous processes, the time required is at least more than 10,000 years. If you are unlucky, it may take tens of thousands of years.
Only after the photon reaches the surface from the inside, can it become a wild horse, and it can only spend 8 minutes to reach the earth after freely racing in space. Therefore, when the nuclear fusion inside the sun stops reacting, that is, the inside of the sun goes out, no more photon energy is produced.
Although the interior of the sun is extinguished and no photons are produced, there will still be active photons reported from the interior of the sun’s surface, which will last for tens of thousands of years. And we living on the earth, naturally do not know that the interior of the sun has been extinguished. What we can see is that the sun is still burning, and the earth is still shining with sunlight.
Until tens of thousands of years No more photons in the sun will reach the surface. After the last photon reaches the earth, we can truly usher in eternal darkness. Of course, this is a very ideal state for us. In fact, the earth cannot resist the moment when the surface of the sun is really extinguished.
As the hydrogen fuel inside the sun ends, the entire sun will continue to expand, forming red giant stars. The expanding sun will slowly approach the earth, causing the earth’s temperature to rise continuously, the atmosphere to be continuously stripped, and the liquid water to evaporate, and life cannot survive. The entire earth becomes a desolate purgatory planet, and then the expanding sun will completely swallow the entire earth. If you are lucky, there may be a dense metal core left on the earth.
This time may occur after 3 billion years. When the sun’s surface is extinguished, the outer layer of the sun will continue to peel off, the inner core will collapse, and it will eventually evolve into a white dwarf star. Therefore, the earth cannot wait until 5 billion years, and humans need to withdraw the earth during the process of the sun’s transition to a red giant star.
If at that time, humans There still exists and has become a powerful interstellar civilization, then we can leave the solar system and go to other galaxies to survive. If you miss the earth, you may be able to transform the earth. It will become a wandering planet and take the earth out of the solar system. Going to a new galaxy to start a new time, it can be seen that the future destiny of mankind wants to change, and it can only be achieved by relying on technology.
My friends, what do you think of this? Everyone is welcome to leave a message and discuss below to express your own views and opinions.