The former deputy minister of the Central Liaison Department talked about the revision of the Russian Constitution:What does Putin’s long-term ruling mean for China?
The author Zhou Li is the former deputy minister of the Central Liaison Department, a senior researcher at the Chongyang Institute of Finance at Renmin University of China, and the director of the China-Russia Humanities Exchange Research Center. The article is the latest issue of the”Real Russia” series. The abridged edition of this article was published on the China Review Network on July 7. The original title was”Zhou Li Talks about the Constitution of Russia:Independent Choices Based on National Conditions”. The following is the full version:
First, the majority of the referendum endorsed the constitutional amendment
From June 25 to July 1, 2020, Russia held a revision of the constitution Referendum. There are 109 million registered voters nationwide and 100,000 polling stations have been set up. In order to avoid the spread of the new crown virus, the voting method is a combination of online and offline, and the voting time is extended to 7 days. Before voting, President Putin appealed to all citizens with voting rights to vote actively by giving a televised speech to the people of the country, emphasizing that voting is not just For the purpose of constitutional amendments, the focus is on building a country with a modern education, medical and social security system, and efficient operation of power institutions, so that the motherland and future generations can have a better tomorrow. Putin reiterated that the amendment will take effect only after obtaining the consent and support of the majority of Russians.
According to all the vote counting results announced by the Russian Central Election Commission on July 2, the total Russian voter turnout rate is 67.97%, of which 77.92%agree to the amendment and 21.27%objectors. The voting situation is clearly better than expected. Putin then signed the presidential decree on July 3, officially released the revised full text of the constitution, and decided that the new constitution will come into effect on July 4. The Russian constitutional revision process, which has attracted the attention of all parties, has come to an end.
Since Putin announced on January 15, 2020 that he will amend the Russian Constitution, the upper and lower chambers of the Russian parliament have overcome the interference of the epidemic, and have quickly spurred on. They have reviewed and passed the amendment submitted by the president within two months The case was decided by the Russian Constitutional Court not to be unconstitutional. The referendum was originally scheduled to be held on April 22, and it was held two months later due to the epidemic situation.
The main contents of this revision include:1) It is clear that Russia has the status of a legal successor country of the Soviet Union, and Russian internal law takes precedence over international law; 2) strong>Prohibit the transfer of Russian territory to any other country; 3) stipulates that the president is inviolable regardless of whether he is in office or not; 4) Expand the parliamentary authority, the State Duma has The right to decide the appointment of the Prime Minister of Russia and ministers of various ministries. The President’s appointment of key officials in security and justice must consult with the Federal Council; 5) Emphasizing that Russia has a thousand-year history of development, bearing”God’s faith” and”ancestor memory”, Have unique civilization and cultural attributes; 6)Keep the marriage as the union of men and women unchanged;7)Implement the pension index and the minimum wage standard is not lower than the minimum living standard , To ensure that people’s living standards do not decline; 8) prohibit senior officials from holding dual nationality or long-term foreign residence permits; 9) stipulates that “the same person shall serve as president of the Russian Federation for no more than two terms”However, the current and former president’s term of office will be zero after the amendments come into effect, and they can run for two more consecutive elections. The most urgent and most important point in amending the constitution is to remove the institutional obstacles to Putin’s long-term ruling. At the end of his term in 2024, Putin can run for two consecutive presidential elections. If elected, he can be re-elected until 2036.
For Putin and his comrades, the overall international environment continues to be tense in the foreseeable future, Russia has been strongly suppressed by the United States for a long time, and Russia’s social and economic development has been seriously hindered. How to keep the regime from being changed , Not to be overthrown, not to be evolved, how to continuously improve and perfect the country’s governance system, and enhance the ruling ability of various levels of state power institutions, how to suppress the influence of various domestic left and right forces on the governance of the authorities, in a word, how not to let the regime Falling into the hands of the political forces envisioned and supported by Western countries such as the United States is currently the top priority of Russia’s top management. Because of this, the revision of the constitution has become a major event of great importance on Russia’s national political agenda this year. The result of the constitutional amendment will determine the direction of Russia’s development in the future, and whether Putin can continue to govern for a long time after the end of his term in 2024. Therefore, to a certain extent, it will determine the changes and directions of the future world pattern.
Regarding the early stage of this constitutional amendment, I have made a more detailed introduction and comment in two articles in January and March this year. Here we focus on two issues. One is that the amendment of the constitution was actually brewed in the upper echelons and introduced gradually. There have been repetitions during this period, but it is by no means a temporary motion. The second is that the Russian society’s struggle to revise the constitution is still quite acute. Putin’s term of “zeroing” in particular encountered strong opposition from the Russian right and left political forces.
Second, the brewing and proposition of the issue of constitutional amendment within the high level
The current Russian Constitution was adopted by a referendum on December 12, 1993. From the implementation to the present, there have been several individual changes in the past 26 years. For example, in 2008, based on the proposal of the then President Medvedev, an important change was made to the constitution, that is, the term of office of the president was changed from four years to six years, and the term of the State Duma was changed from four years to one. The term will be changed every five years. This is actually extending the term of office of the president, the lower house of parliament and the government, reducing the operating costs of being exhausted due to elections and requiring extensive support from all aspects of society, which is conducive to the stability of the entire society and the state. Russian society generally supports such amendments to the Constitution.
Again, in December 2013, Putin made a proposal to merge the Russian Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court. In February 2014, after deliberation and approval by Parliament, the provisions on the Supreme Court of Arbitration were deleted from the Constitution, and the President’s authority to directly appoint the Attorney General and the President’s representative to the Federal Council (the upper house of Parliament) was further expanded.
However, it is necessary for Russia to make major changes to the content of the Constitution, especially when it involves the balance of the entire national power structure system and the revision of the term limit of Presidents. Putin and Russia have always been different within the top level. It is only after a period of time that consensus has gradually been reached. Let’s review this process.
On December 12, 2013, Putin read the annual President’s State of the Union Address to the upper and lower chambers of the Russian parliament. In front of all the members of the parliament, all senior officials of the federal agencies and the local chief executive, the first mention is the revision Constitutional issues. Putin said that we have fulfilled the Constitution for 20 years now. I congratulate you. The Constitution combines the two most critical and most authoritative things. This is the status of citizens with supremacy, freedom, and state prosperity. I am convinced that the framework of the Constitution should be stable. This first involves the second chapter of the Constitution, which determines the rights and freedoms that everyone and every citizen should enjoy. These provisions of the Basic Law cannot be modified. However, life will not stay where it is. The process of implementing the Constitution cannot be regarded as a goal that has been finally completed, it is a dead thing. According to the practice applicable to the law and according to life itself, it is of course possible to make some targeted amendments to other chapters of the Basic Law, and sometimes it is still necessary.
Putin’s remarks are more abstract and sound a bit confusing. So whether to change it or not, how is it changed? There is no answer. A year later, in November 2014, in response to social discussions and speculation about whether Putin will continue to seek re-election as a president and achieve long-term ruling goals, Putin made an official statement by taking the opportunity of being interviewed by the media:”President Lifelong system is harmful to the country. I don’t need it either. I should abide by the provisions of the Russian Constitution on the term of office of the president.” This remark made the Russian society calm for several years. In March 2018, Putin was elected president for the fourth time. At this time, speculations about who should be after the presidency and after Putin”resurfaced” again. Some media seized the opportunity to ask Putin if he had the will to amend the constitution to remove the restriction that the same president cannot exceed two terms. Putin refused,”I don’t have any plans to change the constitution at present.”
It can be said that, until the second half of 2018, Putin and his high-level officials have maintained an attitude of maintaining the stability of the constitution, and have not shown that they will make major changes to the constitution or even extend it by amending the constitution. The intent of the president’s ruling period.
But soon, the president of the Russian Constitutional Court Valery Zorkin, the oldest qualified jurist in Russia, was also a participant and witness of the 1993 constitution. An article was published in the Russian government newspaper”Russian News” on October 10, 2018, which formally put forward proposals to amend the constitution. He said that we must see that the current constitution is flawed. The problem is that our system of checks and balances lacks the balance it deserves. The power is more inclined to the executive authority. The power distribution between the president and the government, the status of the president’s office, and the authority of the Attorney General are not clearly defined. There are also obvious deficiencies in the division of authority between the federal center and the federal entities. And everyone sees that Russia is facing more and more external challenges today. We must meet these challenges in the very complex socio-economic situation we are in. It is for these reasons that I feel that we must tap the legal potential of the Constitution.
But Zorkin opposed the proposition that Russia’s two major political powers would carry out drastic reforms to the Constitution, believing that in this way “the country’s development process can be turned in a more correct direction” is short-sighted, Dangerous, because radical reforms will trigger a sharp social and political upheaval.”The kind of saying that the structure of life can be changed only by some legal decisions, even if it does not make the situation worse, is at least a naive idealism.” This is because the Constitution also performs an extremely important function of social integration. Don’t forget that within a country, the Constitution is the most critical thing to ensure social harmony and social and political stability.
Zorkin went on to point out that the main source of current Russian social tension is due to the long-term unresolved social and economic problems. Social tensions caused by feelings of unfairness and injustice everywhere are further deepened by the fatigue of the people over the past 30 years of reform and the unprecedented economic pressure exerted on Russia by Western countries.
may have been influenced by Zorkin. Putin’s attitude on the issue of constitutional amendment was loosened on the eve of the 25th anniversary of the Russian Constitution in December 2018. He said,”It seems that constitutional reform is conducive to the establishment of a new power constitutional model, and can thus start the process of pre-election of the president.” However, these words are still vague, with the nature of temptation and work.
Late March 2019, Chairman of the Russian Federation Council (Parliament Speaker of the House of Representatives) Matt Viyenko talked about the constitutional amendment and the transformation of the national system in an interview. She said, There is no one-size-fits-all governance model in the world. Countries can choose the priority plan based on their own history and tradition. The current Russian Constitution has determined the development model of the Russian state. 25 years of history prove that this constitution is successful. Presidential countries seem to be more suitable for Russia. However, if the country is to develop further, it cannot stand still. At some stage in the future, we may need to redefine some functions of each branch of power. We should not be afraid of this.
After a short time, on April 6, 2019, the current State Duma President Volokin, who had served as Deputy Director of Putin’s President’s Office and proposed the slogan”No Putin, no Russia” It is necessary to reconsider a series of articles in the Constitution, especially concerning the role of parliament in forming the cabinet. He said,”According to my experience working in the government and the office of the president, in actual operation, the composition of the Russian government is achieved by the prime minister himself. The president only makes decisions based on the government composition proposed by the prime minister, and this composition There is no difference in the list, and no other candidates have been proposed.” Because according to the current Constitution, Russia, as a presidential country, all the appointment and removal of government members are decided by the president alone. Only the foreign ministers, ministers of defense, heads of security and other powerful departments have received the deliberation. Volodin’s public proposal to amend the Russian Constitution is to not only give the State Duma the right to decide the candidate of prime minister during the formation of the government, but also participate in the consultation of candidates for ministers. This is actually a clear proposal to resolve the issue of redistribution of power between Parliament and the President and Prime Minister.
Faced with such a strong smell of gunpowder, Prime Minister Medvedev responded to Volodyn’s proposal that day,”I would like to re-emphasize the proposal to amend the constitution, I am commemorating the establishment of the Russian Basic Law 25 The anniversary article stated that in the context of a country’s stable development, the Constitution is an important tool used to ensure its long-term development. Therefore, the Russian Constitution does not require any adjustment and revision.””Of course, the social and political system is developing, and it is completely normal to make some institutional adjustments to certain functions of the authority.” Medvedev recalled that in 2008, it was based on his own initiative that the President The term of office of the State Duma was adjusted, and a system for the government to report to the State Duma was established. These amendments are all reasonable amendments to the constitution. May finally turned his head to emphasize that this form of government of the presidential republic is the foundation of Russia. No matter how it is adjusted and changed, this article cannot be changed.
The matter has not ended here. On July 17, 2019, Vologin published a signed article in the”Parliament” entitled”A Living Development Constitution”, which clarified his proposition for amending the constitution more clearly. In his words, the amendment of the constitution should not touch the most basic provisions of the constitution (implying the form of government as a presidential republic), but by adjusting certain contents of the constitution to make the constitution”more realistic.” Can better adapt to the current situation.” The current Constitution was adopted in 1993 under”the extremely difficult and difficult state of the country”, which determined the path and priority direction that Russia chose as a powerful, democratic and rule-of-law country. This was very important at the time. However, the understanding of the concept of”conditions for people to live a decent life and realize the free development of people” in the Constitution is completely different between us now and 25 years ago. In order to be more faithful to the principles and spirit of the Constitution, we need to consider what we can do. Wo believes that, first of all, we must ensure that the national legislative and executive powers achieve a new balance in their operations. This new balance is to expand the scope of power of the Russian legislature and give parliament more authority to supervise the government, including consultation and appointment of government members. In the final analysis, it is to amend the Constitution to make it clear that the government should fulfill its heavy tasks under the supervision of the Parliament.
Medvedev still expressed his opposition to Wo’s remarks. What is interesting is that Putin has been”holding his arms” on the remarks of the most important leaders on whether or not the constitution should be amended and the differences between them. Putin’s spokesman Peskov vaguely confronted media reporters, saying only that “the Kremlin does not intend to express public opinions on this”. The implication is not to oppose the recommendations of Matt Wiyenko and Volodyn. Volodyn hopes that the amendment of the constitution to expand the parliament’s authority in deciding the composition of the government and supervising the government will naturally be in the interest of the four parties in Dumane. Everyone expresses their support. This situation overwhelmed Medvedev’s opposition to the constitutional amendment.
Following is what we saw on January 15, 2020, during his State of the Union address, Putin announced the immediate start of the constitutional amendment process, the replacement of government teams, the formation of a constitutional amendment working group, and the final amendments. It must be passed by the referendum to be considered as”landing” and so on, which has made Russia’s political circles really busy.
Three, objections to the amendments, especially the plan to zero the presidency
enters March In the middle of the second reading of the amendment to the National Duma Plenary Meeting, the sudden proposal to put Putin’s term of office zero was suddenly caught by several parties. The Russian parliamentary group, who had all voted in favor at first reading, instantly felt fooled, and decided to abstain from voting on the amendment and vote against the single motion of zeroing the term of office of the president during the second reading. Members of the”United Russia”, Liberal Democrats, and”Justice Russia” parties voted in favor of both cases. The single bill to zero the presidency was subsequently included in the constitutional amendment, which was passed on the third reading of the Duma plenary meeting the following day. The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party, Zyuganov, said that the Russian Communist Party cannot agree to the plan for the presidential term to be zeroed, and does not agree to insert this plan into the constitutional amendment. And Russia’s right-wing forces outside the parliament even lashed out at this. From March to June, we saw that the number of public supporters and opponents of constitutional amendments is increasing, and the debate is quite fierce.
Talk about the right wing first. Yavlinsky, an American interest spokesperson who has been active in Russian politics for a long time, strongly opposed Putin’s constitutional amendment from the beginning. In the late 90s of Gorbachev’s reforms in the early 1990s, he served as vice chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers (deputy prime minister of the government). With the help of Americans, he made a transition from the Soviet planned economy to a market economy.”500-day plan” became famous for a while. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, he formed the neo-liberal”Abolu” party, entered the parliament, and participated in the presidential election twice as a candidate. After Putin came to power, the right-wing parties lost the opportunity to enter the parliament, gradually losing power, and their social influence has declined significantly. However, Yavlinski still tenaciously denounced Russia’s views on domestic and foreign policies through his personal website and some free media, which was full of maliciousness to Putin’s authorities. In 2018, Asia re-elected the president and proposed to have a one-on-one open debate with Putin,”to judge right from wrong.” Since the beginning of this year, Yavlinski has repeatedly criticized the constitutional amendment itself and the amendments. Asia and the U.S. are mainly supported by young right-wingers such as Navajnet. He has a relatively complete set of”Western theories” and”practical experience” that he has worked hard all the way from the late Soviet Union. He is a leading figure of Russian right-wing forces. There are still many followers everywhere.
Yavlinsky’s basic point of view is:1) The amendment submitted by Putin is an unclear mixture full of internal contradictions, which also ensures civil liberties, three The separation of powers, the safety of the people and the well-being of the people have nothing in common, and thus have caused serious damage to the Russian national constitutional system and the Russian legal system. 2) Putin used a referendum to make the constitution revision undoubtedly legal, which is itself illegal and unconstitutional, because Article 136 of the Russian Constitution does not provide for the use of a referendum (not legally effective) Referendum) to determine the fate of the constitution itself. Putin’s move was merely to turn the referendum on the amendment into a referendum in favor of ruling Russia almost indefinitely. 3) Establish a constitutional conference to draw up a constitutional amendment that truly reflects the people’s right to freedom, so as to ensure that Russia’s system of separation of powers can be effectively implemented, citizens’ private property must not be violated, and citizens’ spread Freedom of opinion and belief, citizens live in an independent and fair environment, implement free elections, do not engage in political repression, and the government must abide by its international obligations in respect of human rights and freedoms.
Look at the left wing again. After the amendment was passed, the Russian Communist Party changed its original active participation in providing revision opinions and other methods, and instead used the media to repeatedly elaborate its position against the amendment, especially the presidential term zero plan, in order to gain more understanding and support from the community. Since the plan to return the presidential term to zero is not just a discussion, a doctrine, or an idea involving Russia’s future political situation, but it will be put into practice after the referendum, so the Russian Communist Party It is believed that every effort must be made to mobilize the masses to obstruct the passage of the constitutional amendment. On June 4, Chairman of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party Zyuganov issued a very long and very stern statement in the name of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party, which was widely disseminated by the media and newspapers.
The main contents of the statement are:1) The Constitutional Amendment as a whole strengthened the presidential dictatorship (президентский диктат) and strengthened the country’s step-by-step disaster The status of oligarch governance (олигархическое правление). If today no longer changes direction for the benefit of the people, then Russia will also face deepening divisions, more serious crises and chaos. As we have seen, global speculative capitalism is still selling their stuff door to door. It is very dangerous for Russia to be a”follower” under this system. The time has come to shift from increasingly declining capitalism to a socialist society full of justice and overall progress. 2) The referendum is organized by the Central Election Commission in accordance with procedures that have legal doubts. Each specific amendment cannot be voted on separately. The amendments can only be expressed “agree” or “disagree” in a “wholesale” manner. This provides unlimited possibilities for fraud. 3) The alternative plan of the Russian Communist Party is to launch a program that will push Russia forward. This program includes:building a government trusted by the people, nationalizing key industries in the country, strategically and strategically planning and developing development budgets, revitalizing science, culture, education and health care, and no longer raising the retirement age, Support people’s enterprises and other supporting measures. 4) The corona virus pandemic and people’s fears have greatly strengthened the crisis in the world economy. The dissatisfaction of millions of people is growing rapidly. It has even appeared in the United States where riots are sweeping the streets. Global capitalism cannot solve the problems it caused. Systemic crises pose a deadly threat to the world. To overcome the crisis, we can only follow the principles of socialism. The Russian Communist Party will strengthen the Basic Law accordingly and implement it with confidence and faithfulness.
Fourth, Putin and Zyuganov’s”Aerial Dialogue”
The above comments on the Russian Communist Party, Putin used the”Moscow Kremlin Putin” TV program on June 15 The opportunity for an exclusive interview responded to the Russian Communist Party’s accusation that the constitutional amendment will promote the president’s dictatorship and oligopolistic governance. Putin said that the word dictatorship (диктатура) is a proprietary vocabulary used by our left-wing political party and our opponent, the Communist Party, because they always advocate proletarian dictatorship. I propose that the purpose of amending the constitution is to surrender part of the power of the president, but not to strengthen any presidential power at all. According to the constitutional amendments, the Parliament will ultimately decide the candidates for the prime minister and ministers of the government. The president has no right to veto. When the President appoints personnel from powerful departments, he also consults with the Federal Council. This means that the relevant personnel must report to the Parliament. In addition, the content of the Amendment on the indexation of pensions is also very important, it is beneficial to better protect people’s livelihood. Therefore, it should be said that this revision of the Constitution has taken Russia an important step towards a democratic society. Russia will continue to work in this direction, but it will not make a great leap forward. Putin also said that it has proved that Russia is a country with a flourishing democracy, and the oligarchs have long since disappeared. Only the Communists showed inconsistency. They sometimes support constitutional amendments and sometimes do not.”I remember that the parliamentary group of the Communist Party of Russia voted abstention when they voted in the State Duma. At that time, they did not say they would vote against it.”
The next day, June 16, Zyuganov counterattacked Putin without compromise. He said that the All-Russian Conference of our party only made a decision to vote against the entire amendment at the referendum when there were unexpected new circumstances in the constitutional amendment plan. But if each clause of the amendment can be voted on separately, that is another matter. We advocate a strong country, territorial integrity, a developed culture and education, and maximum support for retirees. But you have to vote for a package. To support is all support, including support for the current president to govern indefinitely. If you do not accept a part of it, you have no choice but to vote against the entire amendment. During the epidemic of the new coronavirus, official data showed that the income of ordinary people fell by 22%, but Russia has oligarchs who arbitrarily seized $62 billion during this period and crossed the border to leave Russia. And we could use this money to do everything that must be done for Russia! But the”United Russia” party refused to consider the bill on progressive tax rates! This is not a manifestation of oligarchy governance, what is it? !
On June 21, Putin clarified his position once again on the issue of constitutional amendment, mainly speaking of three levels of meaning. First, the amendment of the constitution is completely correct and necessary, which will help further consolidate the foundation of the country. The country’s political system should have multiple supports, not just the head of state. The system must develop in concert with society and the state. Times have changed, and so must the response. Now some external forces have been seeking to contain Russia, and hope to shake Russia from the inside, make Russia semi-paralyzed, and then completely manipulate Russia. Russia’s political system has certain protective capabilities, but we must also always consider it to ensure that this system can stand up to stability when subjected to internal and external shocks.
Second, amending the constitution can further consolidate national sovereignty. When the Soviet Union was established, all the republics had the right to withdraw, but they did not determine what procedures should be followed for the withdrawal. Therefore, it may happen that after a republic joined the Soviet Union, part of the territory that originally belonged to Russia was assigned to this republic, and then someday this republic broke away from the Soviet Union, and the territory would not return. It stands to reason that at least what you are when you come and what you are when you leave, and you cannot take the “gift” of the Russian people as your own. However, the 1993 Constitution did not provide any explanation for this.
The third is that if a constitutional amendment is passed by a referendum, it does not exclude that I will run for president again, although I have not made a decision at this time. However, in my experience, if the amendment is not passed, it will take less than two years, and officials at all levels of government in Russia will have no intention of working, and will spend a lot of time looking for who is the current president. Successor on this matter. And what we need exactly is to work hard, not to find a substitute.
Five points of view
1. Despite the disturbance of the epidemic situation and the fierce struggle in Russia’s constitutional amendment process, it is generally smooth, more than three quarters A large number of voters agreed with Putin’s constitutional amendment, agreed to zero the term of the current president, agreed to make new adjustments to the division of powers of the national legislative and executive bodies, and endorsed the commitment to improve people’s living standards, reflecting the Russian people. The historical view and overall view also show what people want. It should be said that this is where the Russian people choose their own development path according to their national conditions. The Russian people hope that under the long-term and strong leadership of President Putin, they will adhere to independence, defend national sovereignty, move toward prosperity and prosperity, and lead a happy life for the people.
2. Putin has been in power for 20 years, supports the construction of a multi-polar world, supports the democratization of international relations, and supports the establishment of a fair and reasonable international political, economic, and security order. Under the circumstances where the United States is arbitrarily promoting hegemonism, power politics and long-term sanctions against Russia, it has dared to fight against violence and dared to fight, won Russia’s lost international status, and increased its say in international and regional affairs. It widened more room for maneuver and played the role of the world’s independent pole. Russia’s strength is in China’s interest.
3. Putin is very friendly to China, understands China, understands China, and supports China. During his 20 years in office, he has been committed to strengthening bilateral practical cooperation in various fields with me and deepening the international stage Strategic cooperation. The two sides support each other on issues involving their respective major core interests and work hand in hand in the fight for international fairness and justice. Cooperation has achieved results unmatched by other countries, effectively safeguarding the common interests of both sides, and is very rare. Putin’s long-term ruling is beneficial to China and the world. I want to support Putin’s efforts to achieve long-term peace and stability and promote social and economic development of the country.
4. For a fairly long period of time in the future, the risks, challenges and pressures we face may continue to increase or even appear superimposed, and we urgently need to establish the broadest international united front. Russia is the most important strategic partner in the united front. Holding high the banner of multilateralism, mutual borrowing and close cooperation between the two sides can do many things in safeguarding the authority of the United Nations and the generally accepted norms of international relations, uniting all the forces of unity in the world, and promoting the building of a community of human destiny.
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