2020-07-13

The melting of permafrost in Russia:the ground is submerged to a depth of 100 meters

By yqqlm yqqlm

What are the consequences if the permafrost melts?

At the 2015 Paris Agreement conference, several scientists and climatologists gave a complete answer:first, the melting of permafrost will cause the temperature in the area to rise faster, and second It is the vicious cycle that releases more carbon, which will destroy the stability of the permafrost in a larger area, and is regarded as one of the”turning points in the region’s climate collapse.”

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Soil with ice

Actually, permafrost does not refer to permanently frozen land. Scientists believe that”below 0°C to maintain two The”frozen state over one year” is regarded as permafrost, which is one of the geological manifestations of the earth’s extreme climate. The thickness of permafrost currently known ranges from centimeters to 1500 meters, and the area exposed on the surface of the earth is about 15 million square kilometers.

After years of research at the University of Sax in the United Kingdom, the Earth’s permafrost has existed for more than 7.2 million years, but in the last 3 million years, almost all areas of permafrost have shown signs of shrinking and collapse. Inversely proportional to this, carbon emissions in these areas are increasing at a rate of tens of times.

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The most famous case of melting permafrost on the planet, which happened in RussiaThe territory of Sakha Republic in Eastern Siberia is only 600 kilometers away from the coldest human settlement on earth Yakutsk . From 1960 to the present, the ground subsidence caused by the melting of the permafrost has reached a depth of 100 meters, and the natural conditions such as water accumulation and sun exposure have further accelerated the expansion of this pothole. It is now more than 2.3 kilometers in length. And it continues to expand.

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So, why does permafrost thaw in East Siberia, where Russians are in the least populated areas?

European climatologists blamed large-scale mining, road construction and fuel emissions during the Soviet period, but Russian scientists believe that global warming is the culprit In the Soviet period, the construction of an oil refinery near Yakutsk was not enough to cause the permafrost to melt, and the refinery was closed for only 20 years. It is impossible to expand it from a small pit in the past 60 years. To more than 2000 meters long.

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The European Geological Association specially set up a scientific expedition team to station in East Siberia. After more than 2 years of systematic research, the experts concluded:1958-1960 During the years, Soviet geologists surveyed gold mines here, and then dispatched troops to clear coniferous forests. After clearing a small piece of land, geologists believe that the gold mines are not large in reserves and are located in the most difficult mining area. The permafrost area, therefore abandoned mining.

It is this piece of land dug three meters deep. In the absence of coniferous forest to block the sunlight, the accumulated rainwater is heated by the sun in the sun, forever The permafrost has gradually melted, so it has the current scale.

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As the melting area expands, the pits become deeper and deeper, and there is more and more permafrost exposed in the sun, except Outside of the low temperature period in winter every year, the melted soil keeps falling down from the cliff, and piles of small mounds at the bottom.

Russian biologists took part of the soil for testing and found that the microorganisms in these soils have been around for 200,000 years. In the Siberian Times, the hole was named”Batagaika””, which is the”gate to the underground world” in the Saha indigenous legend.

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Although this”gate” does not lead to the underground world, it does allow scientists to discover many incredible phenomena, such as those collected in 2017 500,000 years old tree trunk specimens, as well as a large number of ancient bison, elk, mammoths and reindeer remains, of which were unearthed in 2018 A foal fossil is the most complete preserved, its history can be traced back to the prehistoric period 4400 years ago.

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You must know that the lowest temperature in this permafrost region can reach -60℃, which is the lowest temperature on the earth except the North and South Pole, but There are so many animal and plant remains unearthed 100 meters below ground, especially this foal that was born about 3-4 months (in common sense, the place where animals breed is relatively warm). This also puzzles scientists from all over the world. Is there a”special case” in the evolution of the earth? In other words, East Siberia encountered external forces 4400 years ago, which caused a large number of prehistoric plants and animals to be buried under 100 meters? All of this needs to be further studied by scientists.

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Research on animals and plants such as foals can take place slowly, but the thawing permafrost cannot wait that long. For this purpose, the National Geographic of the United States contacted fifteen climate scientists. Thirteen of them believed that”the existing technology cannot capture the major changes in permafrost.” In short, human beings cannot control carbon emissions because of their own needs, resulting in global Climate warming is out of control.

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American National Atmospheric Research Center engineer David Lawrence pointed out:Once the permafrost begins to melt, its process and consequences are worse than humans expect , Because the living microorganisms in the soil will continue to decompose organic matter to release greenhouse gases. Under the influence of various factors such as the rising temperature of the sunshine, the entire permafrost will eventually melt, and all the animals and plants in this area and even the soil form Will be changed.