2020-07-07

The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

By yqqlm yqqlm

In the 1930s, we noticed that a single galaxy in a galaxy cluster moved too fast to be explained by starlight.

In the 1970s, we noticed that galaxies rotate inconsistently, with stars and gas occupying all their masses.

And in 2005, we noticed this.

getInterUrl?uicrIvZQ=95089614528b5faefd733c23ea11d0c4 - The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

Image source:X-ray:NASA/CXC/CfA/M. Markevitch, etc.; shots:NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; … +

When two galaxy clusters collide, individual galaxies will pass through each other, like two shots shot from a distance Birds bombing each other.

Photo source:NASA, ESA, CXC, M. Bradac (University of California, Santa Barbara) and S. Allen … +

getInterUrl?uicrIvZQ=385abbb1d7ba1edb237f6542bafd7ece - The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

The non-luminous gas will become hot and emit X-rays (shown in pink).

getInterUrl?uicrIvZQ=7f62e406b0bd417c898bd9a60b58b1b4 - The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

Image source:X-ray (NASA/CXC/IfA/C. Ma, etc.); optics (NASA/STScI/IfA/C. Ma, etc.).

However, the dark matter reconstructed from the gravitational lens data (blue) should pass through without collision or self-interaction, without hindrance,

getInterUrl?uicrIvZQ=dcc04e1872de0f6258386a972318981d - The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

Image source:X-ray:NASA/CXC/ITA/INAF/J. Merten et al., lens:NASA/STScI; NAOJ/Subaru; ESO/VLT,… +

The separation of dark matter from normal matter shows that the matter we are used to—protons, neutrons, and electrons—do not constitute the mass of most universes!

getInterUrl?uicrIvZQ=b1e4694a737614378a17bc9da433d544 - The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

Image source:X-ray:NASA/CXC/University of Hamburg /F. de Gasperin, etc.; Optical:SDSS; Radio:NRAO/VLA.

In contrast, each group of collision galaxies we observed showed a separation of total mass from luminous gas.

getInterUrl?uicrIvZQ=56503fcd9f60bc639bb75be813d55c73 - The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

Image source:X-ray:NASA/CXC/UCDavis/W. Dawson, etc.; Optics:NASA/STScI/UCDavis/W. Dawson, etc.

This is correct for the smallest group, such as the bullet group, SL2S J08544-0121,

getInterUrl?uicrIvZQ=6c2d11580d4785a8f731a7226e5f7e36 - The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

Image source:ESA/XMM-Newton/F. Gastaldello (INAF/IASF, Milan, Italy)/CFHTLS.

To the largest known colliding constellation El Gordo, ACT-CL J0102-4915.

getInterUrl?uicrIvZQ=f93b06196312f489cde87cd5c4294967 - The secret of dark matter was revealed, thanks to the galaxy cluster, why?

Image source:NASA, ESA, J. Jee (University of California, Davis), J. Hughes (Rutgers University), F. … +

Each type has its own unique history, but they all reflect the same thing:dark matter is real, they are everywhere, and they are mysterious and spectacular.

Related knowledge

Interactive galaxies are galaxies that interact with each other. If two or more galaxies collide or are too close together, interaction will occur between them. The result may be that the interacting galaxies merge or form a special shape and arrangement. The common feature of all interacting galaxies is that the interaction between them stimulates the activity within the galaxy, and the original rotation of the galaxy cancels the gravitational force, causing the contraction balance to be disturbed by the interaction.

General galaxies (especially the merger of the original galaxies) occur in the universe where galaxies are relatively dense and their mutual speed is relatively slow. If the speed between two colliding galaxies is relatively high, they will often pass through each other, and sometimes the galaxies will stagger at close range. Elliptical galaxies are often formed by the merger of disk galaxies (especially spiral galaxies). Only 1-2%of today’s galaxies are still in the process of merging, and astronomical observations seem to prove that about one billion years after the Big Bang Later, many dwarf galaxies merged with each other.

In cosmology, dark matter (English:Dark matter) refers to materials that cannot be studied through the observation of electromagnetic waves, that is, substances that do not interact with electromagnetic forces. People can only know through the effect of gravity at present, and have found a lot of dark matter in the universe.

Dark matter is detected by modern astronomy through gravitational lenses, the formation of large-scale structures in the universe, and microwave background radiation. According to the ΛCDM model, the data detected by the Planck satellites:In the composition of the entire universe, conventional matter (ie baryon matter) accounts for 4.9%, dark matter accounts for 26.8%, and 68.3%is Dark energy (mass-energy equivalent). The existence of dark matter can solve the inconsistency in the Big Bang theory, and it is also very important for the formation of structures. Dark matter is likely to be composed of a new particle (or several types) of particles outside the standard model of particle physics. The study of dark matter (and dark energy) is an important subject of modern cosmology and particle physics.

In November 2015, Gary Prézeau, a scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, used the ΛCDM model to simulate the flow of dark matter in the Milky Way through the Earth and Jupiter. In the case of planets, it was found that this would significantly increase the density of the dark matter stream (Earth:{displaystyle 10^{7}}10^{7} times, Jupiter:{displaystyle 10^{8}}10^{8} Times), and present hair-like outward radiation distribution structure.

Author:Ethan Siegel

FY:Kyoko Ono

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