The terrible”cobra effect”
In addition to the endless cobras
Humans have spent their minds but have no ability to destroy the cobras of a city. Do you believe it? This thing really happened in India during the British colonial period.
At that time, the cobras in India’s capital Delhi were rampant, which posed a great threat to the safety of Delhi’s citizens. In consideration of protecting the safety of people’s lives, the British colonial government issued a reward measure:every time the people kill a cobra, they will receive a reward of 1 rupee. The impoverished Indian people immediately became more enthusiastic, and the wild cobras in Delhi soon decreased significantly. It seems that the rampant Cobra matter will be resolved soon, but is this really the case?
surprising turn of events In fact, many people started to raise cobras. Obviously to destroy the cobras, why should we raise them? The reason may be that the government never thinks about it. In fact, people don’t catch snakes for safety, but for money. And they found that selling dead snakes brought the government money quickly, and no one wanted to lose this opportunity to make money. So many people plan to use wild cobras instead of wild cobras to defraud the government of bonuses.
The government soon discovered this situation and canceled the reward measures. The people who kept cobras didn’t know how to deal with a large number of cobras that became worthless, and they released them all. With this release, Delhi’s cobras began to flood again, and the number was even greater than before the measures were implemented. This result is really jaw-dropping. The government can be said to have been defrauded by spending money, and the last thing has not been resolved.
Out of good intentions, the government did things for the people, but in the end it turned out to be counterproductive. This thing caused people to think deeply. Economists refer to this phenomenon as the”Cobra Effect”. The”Cobra Effect” refers to the solutions that the”authority” implements for certain social problems not only did not receive the expected results, but made the problem worse. phenomenon.
The cobra effect generally causes loss of manpower, material resources, and financial resources, and its problems will not be solved. What’s more, it will form a long-term mechanism that damages society but is difficult to remove.
The bigger the problem, the bigger the solution
In the 1980s, Mexico City, with 18 million inhabitants, was a”giant city”, but it also suffered Extreme air pollution caused by excessive car travel. In order to reduce pollution, the municipal government has implemented a”tail number limit order”-according to the number at the end of the car license plate, about 20%of cars are prohibited from going on the road every day. The original intention of the government was good, but unexpectedly the eye snake effect occurred-the environmental pollution in Mexico City did not decrease with the implementation of the ban, but became even heavier. Why is this?
In fact, relative to the convenience of daily life, ordinary people will not think too much about pollution. The purpose of the government is to let more people take the bus, but many people who are restricted from driving in their own cars choose to take taxis, and even a large number of people buy cheap old used cars as their second Car. As we all know, compared with driving a private car, taking a taxi does not reduce the number of vehicles on the street, and driving old second-hand cars has greater air pollution, which leads to more serious pollution problems.
Compared to the air pollution problem in Mexico City, the social assistance problem in Germany is much more difficult to solve. The Mexican city government can issue more reasonable laws to make up for its mistakes, but there is no German chancellor who dares to challenge the German social welfare system unless he does not want to do it.
In order to help the unemployed get through the difficulties of life, and at the same time avoid bureaucracy and the inefficiency of government affairs, the German government has long outsourced social assistance to private institutions. And each private institution that rescues a German, they can get a part of the remuneration. In this way, the German government not only guarantees its integrity, but also greatly improves the efficiency of social assistance.
However, the Germans did not anticipate that the development of social assistance undertakings to this day has become an incurable cancer in German society:the amount of money flowing to social assistance undertakings each year reaches one-fifth of the tax, resulting in A great financial burden. The most frightening thing is that a large number of Germans have become decadent and lazy, and countless young Germans have taken the initiative to lose their jobs, resulting in a national labor shortage. The reason for this”cobra effect” is that, first, the German salvage benefits are indeed too good. The amount of unemployment benefits received by the unemployed every month is equivalent to 60%of his wages at work; second, the private contractors of social assistance work In order to obtain more money, the organization has discovered and even cultivated the unemployed in large numbers, turning them into their”customers”.
Economic person? Social people!
We know that the social responsibility of”legislators” is very important, and they must maintain great humility and great caution. Because the implementation of every law or policy requires every citizen to comply, which often has a great impact on the entire society. As long as we look closely at today’s society, we will find that whether it is on a large level or a small level, the”cobra effect” is actually everywhere. This shows that many”legislators” have not fully considered the consequences of the matter, which is worthy of our vigilance and reference.
How to avoid the”cobra effect”? Since each”cobra effect” phenomenon is very different, specific things need to be analyzed. But we must understand that people have two attributes, one is”economic man” and the other is”social man”. The”economic man” attribute means that a person will pursue greater economic benefits and greater material rewards for himself. For example, Indians who raise cobras, German private aid agencies that dig out the unemployed, and citizens of Mexico City who bought a second car to circumvent punishment, all have a strong”economic man” attribute. The”social person” attribute means that a person realizes that as a member of a social group, the quality of society is closely related to their own behavior, so they will strive to do something for society. Many people willing to participate in public welfare activities can reflect the”social person” attribute.
In many cases, the”legislator” considers the”social person” attribute, but does not consider the”economic man” attribute. They often think that a policy is good for society, and the people will support and maintain it out of the”social person” attribute, and then the policy will be successfully implemented, but in fact this often leads to the”cobra effect.” Because for an ordinary person, its”economic person” attribute tends to be more dominant than the”social person” attribute.
Therefore, when using certain economic means (such as rewards and penalties) to improve the efficiency of the implementation of some policies, on the one hand, we must pay attention to preventing the”economic man” attribute of the people to guide them to make the original intention of the policy Inconsistent behaviors, on the other hand, should increase publicity to help people enhance their”social person” attributes. In fact, enhancing the”social person” attribute of the people so that everyone loves society can create a better future.