U.S. giant rocket beyond Saturn V determined to make its first flight in 2021
The SLS rocket is the abbreviation of the US Space Launch System. Its ultimate capacity will reach 143 tons (one said 165 tons). The Saturn 5 rocket, which surpasses the largest capacity in history, will be the largest capacity in the United States in history. Of super heavy rocket.
SLS rocket evolved from the space shuttle The Rockets began to determine and start the project in 2011. The original plan was to launch the first launch in 2017, but it was postponed due to various reasons. The latest plan is to make the first flight in 2021. The SLS rocket research adopts a progressive development strategy of developing multiple structural models and increasing the carrying capacity step by step, so that components can be continuously improved, enhanced and integrated with new technologies to balance the contradiction between cost and schedule to meet the needs of different development stages. At present, SLS is divided into three stages. The first stage is called the manned version of Block 1, with a capacity of 70 tons, and the goal is to land on the moon; the second stage is the manned/freight version of Block 2, with a capacity of 105 tons; the third This stage is the Block 2A manned/cargo version with a capacity of 130 tons. According to needs, it can eventually develop into a super heavy rocket with a capacity of 143 tons (165 tons).
According to data published by NASA, SLS rocket It is a two-stage structure rocket using liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen engine and bundled with two boosters. The first-stage rocket is 8.4 meters in diameter and uses the RS-25E engine; the second stage of the Block 1 and Block 2 rockets uses the RL-10A engine, and the Block 2A uses the J-2x engine, which is a second from Saturn 5 The engine technology used in the advanced rocket is improved. The height of the manned version is about 98 meters, and the height of the manned/cargo version is 122 meters. SLS uses liquid fuel propulsion, which is much more reliable than solid fuel propulsion. The two tragic accidents of the space shuttle are still vivid in the eye. It is estimated that the United States is now afraid to easily try solid fuels for manned rockets.
The SLS rocket will be the United States’ weight in 2024 The main rocket back to the moon and Mars exploration, although the United States sent astronauts to the moon five times in the 1970s, but has not been to the moon in the past 50 years, one of the key reasons is that there is no heavy rocket that can implement the moon . Except for the heavy falcon assembled by three Falcon 9, the rocket with the largest capacity in active service in the United States is the Delta 4 rocket. The ground rail capacity is 28.79 tons. At present, it is necessary to study more than 100 tons of carrying capacity. Such a large capacity span increase has a lot of pressure and challenges for even the United States, which has manufactured the Saturn 5 rocket.
Although it was postponed all the way, in fact SLS The various components of the rocket have basically been completed in 2019, and various tests are already underway. After the test, the whole arrow will be assembled. It is understood that the pressure resistance of the tank of SLS has passed the test perfectly. Under the condition of 2.6 times the actual flight limit pressure, the test exploded after 5 hours, while the actual flight only took 500 seconds. In January of this year, the core level of SLS has been shipped to the Stanislas B-2 test center for ignition testing.
Combined with SLS rocket The spacecraft of the month event is the American Orion spacecraft, manufactured by Lockheed Martin, and completed its first flight on December 5, 2014. The Orion spaceship is the heaviest of the new generation of spaceships in various countries. The full version will reach 25 tons and can carry up to 6 people. The spacecraft will undertake the heavy tasks of manned moon landing and manned landing on Mars in the United States. A total of six ships will be built in the early stage.
China’s most anticipated super heavy rocket” Long March No. “, technical research and deepening of the plan have been established in 2016, and the first flight will be made in 2028 at the earliest. Like the SLS rocket, the”Long March 9″ may also develop three models, namely 140 tons of capacity CZ-9, 100 tons of capacity CZ-9A, and 50 tons of capacity CZ-9B. Different from SLS, the”Long March 9” is a three-stage rocket with a core stage diameter of 10 meters and up to 4 boosters bundled at a total height of about 100 meters. The first stage of the rocket core uses liquid oxygen/kerosene engines, and the second and third stages use liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines.
In terms of carrying capacity, SLS and China Long March 9 is a rocket of the same level, all of which belong to super heavy (giant) rockets. The purpose is to prepare for the two countries’ deep space exploration strategy, manned landing on the moon and manned landing on Mars. In terms of progress, the SLS in the United States is earlier than my country and the technology is more mature. Although it has been postponed several times, the progress is still ahead of my country’s Long March 9. In June of this year, NASA announced that SLS-related test work was nearing completion and that it would make its first flight in 2021 and send astronauts to the moon in 2024, while”Long March 9″ plans to make its first flight in 2028.
According to the latest news, due to the epidemic Influencing factors, the first flight of the SLS rocket is expected to take place in the second half of next year. According to the plan, before the official implementation of the manned moon landing, the SLS rocket will be used to launch an unmanned spacecraft to fly around the moon for testing. This work will be carried out as soon as 2022.