What is above and below the solar system? The discovery of scientists makes humans think deeply!
The solar system in the textbooks, the eight planets have an orbiting plane around, it is easy to distinguish the relationship between them! But in fact, this is a God’s perspective to observe the solar system, and NASA launched a satellite specifically for this purpose. Its discovery makes humans think deeply!
How does the universe distinguish between upper and lower?
I believe many authors will tell you that there is no up, down, left, and right in the universe! At the surface, due to the gravitational effect of the earth on everything (including humans), we can easily distinguish up and down. The object falling and pointing to the center of the earth is down, the opposite direction is up, and the left and right are the people standing at the time. Gesture to distinguish left and right, it has no definite direction!
In the near-Earth orbit, due to the”centrifugal force” generated by orbiting the earth, all the objects in the spacecraft are in a weightless state. At this time, we first have no concept of the lower, on the contrary, the concept of the upper Disappeared! Is there really no difference in the universe?
What is the standard of up and down in the universe?
Accurately, if it is an empty universe, there is really no standard definition up and down, but the universe is not empty, but lively, for example, in the solar system, there are eight planets and ten Several dwarf planets and countless asteroids! Then we have defined standards! For example, the earth has a magnetic field of the north and south poles, N is the north pole, and S is the south pole (in fact, the north pole is S and the south pole is N, but the N of the magnetic needle points to the north pole, so it is customary)!
So almost all of our pictures of the earth in space, the North Pole is always facing upward, there are several reasons, because most humans on the earth are in the northern hemisphere, and the other is that the scientific system is also developed from the northern hemisphere, so most Scientists are in the scientific community of the northern hemisphere, of course, the earth’s North Pole will be up!
So the North Pole is the concept that we have agreed upon. The direction of the North Pole in space has become the up in the traditional sense, and the South Pole has naturally become down! So how do you define the North Pole if there is no magnetic field in the universe? This is not a problem for scientists. They borrowed the rule of the right hand to judge the direction of the current. Four fingers represent the direction of rotation, so the thumb is pointing to the North Pole!
The north direction of the earth, Uranus and Venus
The three typical celestial bodies in the solar system are in the north direction, from the tilt of the earth to Uranus lying down, and then Venus turning back! Therefore, the upper and lower parts of the solar system are distinguished. The four fingers follow the direction of the star’s revolution, and the thumb refers to the upper side, and vice versa!
Of course, the direction of the sun’s rotation is the same as the direction of the revolution of solar planets, so the solar system and the sun’s north direction are also the same!
What secrets are hidden above and below the solar system?
The planets of the solar system generally revolve on the zodiac, so no matter which planet you observe, you can only see the middle and low latitudes of the sun. In order to see the direction of the sun’s polarities, NASA and ESA cooperate A solar probe”Ulysses” was launched. It was a box probe with length, width and height of 3 meters, 3.3 meters and 2 meters respectively. It was in Kana on October 6, 1990. Cape Veral was launched by Space Shuttle Discovery. On February 8, 1992, Jupiter’s gravity was adjusted to the nearly vertical (79°) solar polar orbit of the ecliptic plane, and the solar high-latitude observation tour began! i
Ulysses’ Polar Polar Orbit Observation Trip
Ulysses sampled the solar wind while leaping over the polar regions, and detected high-latitude solar storms that people had not expected before, Observe the situation when the solar wind escapes from the coronal hole in the polar region!
Polar region solar wind escaping from the coronal hole (Figure A)
In addition to the mysterious sun, other planets also show a very mysterious aspect at their poles, of course the most famous is Saturn Arctic Hexagon Storm! In April 2013, the Cassini probe returned a picture that left scientists dumbfounded. A huge hexagonal storm appeared at the north pole of Saturn, completely different from the original shape of a tropical cyclone or hurricane on Earth! In fact, this storm was discovered as early as the traveler, but the scientist still shocked the scientist in such a high-definition picture!
The diameter of this storm is as high as 25,000 kilometers, but don’t be surprised, it was formed in a natural state, because scientists have completely reproduced this structure using the conditions in the laboratory, Saturn will form this hexagonal storm It is because it appears in the North Pole, and this special mechanism is coupled with Saturn’s rotation!
What else is above and below the solar system?
The above briefly introduces the upper and lower parts of the solar system, so what is in the Milky Way away from the direction of the solar system? In fact, this matter had to start with the Herschel stars in the census galaxy, and then countless scientists tried to figure out the structure of the galaxy In various studies, in 1918 Shapley figured out that the solar system is on the edge of the Milky Way, and Swedish astronomer Bethel Lindblad figured out that the Milky Way is also spinning!
But to be accurate, such a huge number of stars in the Milky Way (100 billion to 400 billion) is obviously not artificially achievable! Therefore, the ESA launched the Iba Valley satellite and the Gaia satellite one after another, and”completely” surveyed the stars of the Milky Way. Of course, it is completely impossible. It is just as much as possible. The establishment of a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way has led scientists to There is a clearer understanding of the Milky Way where the solar system is located!
The celestial bodies within 100 light years of the solar system
The above picture is a relative schematic diagram up to the star established on the basis of the solar system ecliptic plane. It is accurate to say that the direction of the north pole of the sun is not pointing to a nearby star, but the north pole of the earth is pointing Polaris, but the sun’s rotation axis (almost perpendicular to the zodiac, the inclination is only slightly more than 0.1°) and the earth’s inclination is about 23.5 degrees.
Schematic diagram of the Earth’s dip angle
The direction of the North Pole of the solar system is far from the center of the Milky Way, so in winter on the earth, the result of the tilt of the earth’s rotation axis is that the northern hemisphere in winter can not see the galaxy, so the winter galaxy gloomy!
Attitude of the solar system in the galaxy
The above picture is the attitude of the solar system in the galaxy based on the galactic plane. All angles have detailed standards. You can try to make up the solar system in the galaxy. The movement in the galaxy looks a little weird!
The direction of the Milky Way in summer and winter
The above picture takes the fairy galaxy as an example (the fairy galaxy is a spiral galaxy, and the milky way is a barred spiral galaxy). The direction of the milky way in summer and winter is marked. Under the scale, how to understand?
Several objects in the local galaxy group
From the solar system to the entire observable universe
There is really no up and down in the universe, but we solved the whole problem with a conventional coordinate system, obviously everyone understands It’s much more convenient!