American Mars rover encounters survival warning:if it brings back a deadly virus, it will be more serious than the new crown epidemic
Editor’s note:Perseverance Mars Rover This time there is another mission to collect more than 20 test tubes of Martian rocks sample. NASA expects to conduct two launches in 2026, the first to send a device called the Sample Retrieval Lander (SRL) to Mars, and the second to send the Earth Return Orbiter (ERO) to Mars orbit. Two launches were used to bring Martian samples back to Earth, but this also triggered some scientists to raise a survival warning:If the deadly virus is brought back, it will be more serious than the new crown epidemic.
Impressions of the universe｜Toutiao exclusive in-depth science column No. 1414
The Perseverance rover has embarked on an orbit to Mars and is expected to land on Mars on February 18, 2021 surface. The area where it landed this time is called the Jezero impact crater. Billions of years ago, this was the junction of the river and the ocean, and it was called a delta on the earth. For this mission, Perseverance still focuses on finding Martian microbes. For this reason, NASA has proposed a new strategy to detect Martian rock layers while collecting samples on the other so that it can return to Earth later.
Picture interpretation:The Sample Search Lander (SRL) planned to be launched in 2026 can launch Mars samples into orbit
Picture interpretation:European Space Agency and NASA cooperation project plan Starting in 2026, including a Mars rover
Picture interpretation:Mars samples are returned to Earth in such test tubes
From another perspective, Perseverance does not have the ability to return samples this time, but first collect the original samples in test tubes In, samples were collected in two steps, so Perseverance was also the first interplanetary sample collection mission. According to the mission plan, the Perseverance rover will collect at least 20 Martian rock samples. The laboratory on Earth can conduct in-depth analysis of the rock samples, which Perseverance cannot do.
Thomas Zubsing, deputy director of NASA’s Science Mission, pointed out that returning to Mars samples can change our understanding of the origin and evolution of life. During the Apollo mission, the astronauts brought back 842 pounds, equivalent to 381 kilograms of moon rock. In 2006, NASA’s Stardust probe also brought comet dust back to Earth. NASA’s latest asteroid sampling return mission, the OSIRIS-Rex probe, is collecting samples of the asteroid Bennu. If all goes well, the return capsule will return to Earth in September 2023. In addition to NASA, Japan’s Hayabusa 2 probe will also send samples of the Ryugu asteroid back to Earth in December 2020. The Itokawa asteroid sample was sent back to Earth in 2010.
Picture interpretation:The Perseverance Rover is an upgraded version of Curiosity
Picture interpretation:Another return-to-surface takeoff program
This should be the first time to collect samples from another planet, and there is a greater risk. As described in science fiction movies, if there are microorganisms in the returned sample, it may bring extraterrestrial life back to the earth, which is called biological invasion in ecology. The lunar rock samples are exposed to cosmic rays, and the lunar surface is also close to the cosmic vacuum. Therefore, compared with the planetary surface samples, the possibility of life is almost zero. But Mars is different. The highest temperature on the surface of Mars can reach more than 20 degrees Celsius, which is equivalent to the temperature on Earth, creating certain conditions for the existence of life. Scientists have discovered that a depth of about 3 meters below the surface of Mars can shield the deadly galactic cosmic rays and turn them into beneficial rays that promote evolution. Therefore, below the surface of Mars, the probability of life is greater.
This time, Perseverance will collect dozens of samples from the Jezero impact crater, install them in sterile test tubes, and wait for the next mission to Mars. NASA expects to conduct two launches in 2026, the first to send a device called the Sample Retrieval Lander (SRL) to Mars, and the second to send the Earth Return Orbiter (ERO) to Mars orbit.
Picture interpretation:Returning to Mars samples also lays the technical foundation for astronauts to take off from the surface of Mars.
The sample retrieval lander includes an ascending rocket and a sampling rover developed by the European Space Agency. The sample is brought back to the lander, and the sample test tube is launched into the orbit of Mars via an ascending rocket, docked with the Earth Return Orbiter, and finally returned to Earth. The splash point is located in the Utah desert, and it may take place in 2031. From the current point of view, there should be no deadly viruses on Mars, but this possibility cannot be completely ruled out. This epidemic is spreading around the world, and human vaccine development is relatively lagging, so it is very cautious to bring samples from other planets. Universe impression is exclusive to today’s headlines, others are fake, and reprinting is illegal.