2021-02-27

She is a man of meritorious excavation in the Yin Ruins, revealing the radiance of the thousand-year oracle

By yqqlm yqqlm

She is a figure of meritorious excavation in the Yin Ruins, revealing the radiance of the thousand years of oracle bones…

Reporter: Xing Chong, Li Chun, Yu Zhanyi

More than three thousand years ago, she was an ancestor Engraving divination texts on tortoise shells and animal bones, and at the same time portraying the dawn of the history of Chinese civilization; more than a hundred years ago, when oracle bones were no longer regarded as “dragon bones” for crushing medicinal purposes, they condensed the words of human wisdom Finally pierced the dust of history.

The Yin Ruins are regarded as the starting point of modern Chinese archaeology; the oracle bone inscriptions are regarded as the earliest mature Chinese character system discovered in China so far. A century of archaeology has passed, and modern humans have been tirelessly exploring ancient characters. What is the brilliance of the thousand-year oracle bones in this world?

“Knowing the past is to better understand the present, to understand the present, and to do well in the present is for the future. This is a continuous development process.” When the reporter asked this question, she was 81 years old. Liu Yiman’s eyes flooded. Participated twice in the important discoveries of oracle bone inscriptions, and has been with oracle bones for nearly fifty years. This old man who was named a meritorious figure in archaeological excavations in Yin Ruins wrote the answer to the proposition of the integration of this era.

She is a man of meritorious excavation in the Yin Ruins, revealing the radiance of the thousand-year oracle

Liu Yiman uses one piece The replica of Bu Jia told reporters from Chinanews.com about the details of the Oracle excavation. Photo by Li Chun

Explore the unknown: how many oracle bones are still unexplained?

Speaking of the biggest gain from the excavation of oracle bones, Liu Yiman believes that it is the awe of history and the continuous exploration of the unknown, which is also the most attractive part of archaeology. “Many times of excavation were discovered by accident. Even when I went to the site that morning, I didn’t know what else I would find on that day.” Liu Yiman said, “It is curiosity that keeps me exploring the unknown.”

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p >In 1972, Liu Yiman voluntarily asked to go to Anyang for field archaeology. Because she was lively and active since she was a child, and very interested in history, she came to Beijing from her hometown in Guangdong to study in 1957. After 15 years, her life path was due to this time she took the initiative to invite Yingying to another city thousands of miles away.

However, Liu Yiman was a little disappointed that autumn. In the excavation of Xiaotunxidi she participated in, only four moments of oracle bones were found, and there were not many words on them. “The detective that I am in charge of has not released oracle bones. At that time, I thought it would be nice if I could dig it in the future.”

The following year Liu Yiman came to Anyang for more than 8 months. The first harvest was quite fruitful: During the excavation in the southern part of Xiaotun, Liu Yiman personally unearthed nearly 3,000 pieces of carved oracle bones, and 1251 pieces of carved oracle bones were unearthed in Pit H24, which was excavated that year. The largest number of units, and many large bones were unearthed.

She is a man of meritorious excavation in the Yin Ruins, revealing the radiance of the thousand-year oracle(1)

Liu Yiman uses one piece The replica of Bu Jia told reporters from Chinanews.com about the details of the Oracle excavation. Photographed by Li Chun

This excavation has added valuable data to the study of the history of the Shang Dynasty and the oracle bone inscriptions, and is also of great significance to the periodization of the inscriptions. What’s more worth mentioning is that these oracle bones are all unearthed from scientific excavations, and have reliable stratigraphic relationships, thus solving some problems that have not been resolved in the oracle staging. Therefore, the excavation in 1973 was called the second of the Yinxu oracle bone inscriptions. Second important discovery.

In October 1991, the Anyang Urban Construction Bureau wanted to build a north-south highway in front of the Yinxu Museum. The drilling team found a drill hole in the three holes drilled 100 meters east of Huayuanzhuang. The small piece of trace has no word Bu Jia. After being preliminarily determined to be the oracle pit, Liu Yiman was called in for immediate support.

“At that time, I led a young man to excavate the place where the worker leaned out of the oracle bones. At ten o’clock in the morning, the young man suddenly jumped out of the pit and shouted at me,’Come out, come out!’ I jumped. I went down to the pit, and it turned out that the text came out. I was so happy at that time.”

Under the auspices of Liu Yiman, this piece was named “Huadong H3 Pit” and a total of 1,583 pieces of oracle bones were unearthed. There are 689 pieces of oracle bones with characters; the content of the inscriptions is novel, reflecting that the owner is a high-ranking nobleman who has a close relationship with the king. This is the third important discovery of the oracle bone inscriptions in the Yin Ruins.

For Liu Yiman, the excavation of oracle bones left more than just pieces of oracle bones. Compared with excavation and clean-up work, the collation of Oracle requires more energy. “I personally discovered oracle bones, which inspired my enthusiasm for learning oracle bone inscriptions, but I am not a major in ancient Chinese characters. I want to sort it out by myself and learn as I go. If I don’t understand, I will read books and oracle bone inscriptions dictionaries, and slowly make oracle bone interpretations. .”

She is a man of meritorious excavation in the Yin Ruins, revealing the radiance of the thousand-year oracle(2)

After the oracle bones were unearthed Long-term tidying work is required. Li Chunshe

Liu Yiman still clearly remembers that the archaeological work station was in the west of Xiaotun Village at that time. There was insufficient electricity supply in the countryside. Each room of the archaeological team had a kerosene lamp. She was there for countless nights. Reading or working under the kerosene lamp.

According to statistics, about 150,000 oracle bones have been discovered so far in Yin Ruins, of which more than 35,000 oracle bones have been unearthed from archaeological excavations; there are currently more than 4,000 oracle bones unearthed, and there are about 4,000 words recognized by academic circles. More than 1,000.

Until now, textual research is still an important field of oracle bone research. A few years ago, a piece of news that deciphered the uninterpreted oracle bone inscriptions and was appraised by the committee of experts to reward one hundred thousand single words was interpreted as a real version of “one-character money”. In this regard, Liu Yiman said with a smile that this has a certain significance for the popularization of oracle bone inscriptions, but the interpretation of the characters is a basis, and the in-depth integration with archaeology on this basis is of greater significance.

“For example, the famous Fuhao Tomb was excavated in the northwest of Xiaotun. 1928 pieces of various cultural relics were unearthed from the tomb. There are records of women’s activities, combined with the cultural relics unearthed in this tomb, it can be determined that the owner of the tomb is Wu Ding’s spouse.” Liu Yiman said that the archaeological relics or relics can be better explained through oracle bone inscriptions.

The friendship between the two sides of the strait: “He really wants to go back to the Yin Ruins again”

Liu Yiman said that the three oracle excavations in the Yin Ruins in history reflect the scientific, centralized, and Richness, and the first important discovery laid the foundation for the full development of oracle bone research. This time it was discovered that one person’s name could not be avoided-Shi Zhangru.

On June 12, 1936, at the end of the 13th Yinxu excavation, the archaeological team accidentally discovered the YH127 oracle pit. The Henan-born archaeologist Shi Zhangru and others who participated in the excavation took the method of transporting the entire pit to Nanjing, and also created a precedent for indoor archaeological excavations in China.

After several months of collation, 17096 pieces of carved oracle bones were found in the YH127 pit. The content is particularly rich, involving the politics, economy, culture, social life, and religious beliefs of the Shang Dynasty. This is the first important discovery of the oracle bone inscriptions in the Yin Ruins. YH127 oracle bone pit is known as the earliest “archive” in ancient China.

In fact, Shi Zhangru participated in or presided over the Yin Ruins excavations 12 times before and after, and he is known as the “living archive” of Yin Ruins excavations. With the changing of history, Shi Zhang came to the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology at National Taiwan University to teach field archaeology, bringing back to life the archaeology of Taiwan, which was on the verge of interruption.

However, what Shi Zhangru cares most is the Yin Ruins. After Liu Yiman presided over the excavation of the Huadong H3 Pit in the 1990s, he wrote an article “Excavation of the Oracle Bone Pit in the East of Yinxu Huayuanzhuang” and published it. Shizhang on the other side of the strait attached great importance to it and immediately wrote an article “The Great Yinxu The Turtle Edition Five Times Unearthed in Three Places” was introduced in Taiwan.

She is a man of meritorious excavation in the Yin Ruins, revealing the radiance of the thousand-year oracle(3)

Liu Yiman introduced , To excavate the Oracle Bone Pit, you need to draw a picture first, and then excavate piece by piece in order. Photo by Li Chun

In May 1998, Liu Yiman went to Taiwan to participate in the “Yin Ruins Archaeology Talks between Old and Young” academic exchanges, and finally met Shi Zhangru, who was 96 years old at the time. “Although I was 58 years old at the time, I was still a junior in front of Mr. Shi. Mr. Shi first talked about the excavation of the YH127 pit. I talked about the archaeological gains of the Yin Ruins in recent years. After hearing this, he was very moved. I miss the treasure very much.”

Liu Yiman said that Shi Zhangru’s long-term wish was to go back to the Yin Ruins again. Because of his advanced age, he could not make it in the end. His son Shi Lei once came to Yinxu and fulfilled his wish for him. A colleague traveled to Anyang to communicate, and Mr. Shi Zhangru asked them to take more photos and bring them back to him. My colleagues in the mainland have also mailed some archaeological reports, and the old man is very happy.

Shi Zhangru was still full of academic ambitions in his late life. His dreams were often the names of places such as Anyang and Xiaotun, or working in the fields with archaeological partners. He was hailed as “the only thought in his life.” “Scholar.

“Scholars on both sides of the Taiwan Strait have done research on the preservation and sorting of the oracle bone inscriptions in the Yin Ruins and other unearthed cultural relics. We are all descendants of Yan and Huang, and we are all in order to protect the precious heritage left by our ancestors more than 3,000 years ago and inherit the outstanding China Culture is everyone’s common responsibility.” Liu Yiman said.

She is a man of meritorious excavation in the Yin Ruins, revealing the radiance of the thousand-year oracle(4)

Liu Yiman and colleagues We carried out the scorching experiment. Li Chunshe

Memory of the World: Speaking from a Stamp

In September 1996, the 13th International Archives Conference was held in Beijing. In commemoration of this conference, the ” The first special stamp of “Ancient Chinese Archives” was a sample of an oracle bone personally selected by Liu Yiman, and was named “Oracle Bone Archives·Shang Dynasty Tortoise Shell”.

She is a man of meritorious excavation in the Yin Ruins, revealing the radiance of the thousand-year oracle(5)

“Ancient Chinese Archives” The first special stamp “Oracle Bone File·Shang Dynasty Tortoise Shell” and its oracle bone rubbings and facsimiles. Photo by Li Chun

In 2017, Oracle passed the review of the International Advisory Committee of UNESCO’s Memory of the World Project and was selected into the Memory of the World Register. It is generally believed that memory document heritage reflects the diversity of languages, nations, and cultures, and is called a mirror of the world, as well as a memory of the world. “This shows that Oracle is not only important to China, but also important to the study of the world’s civilization process.”

Liu Yiman said that Oracle is the only script that has been passed down to today among the four major ancient writing systems in the world. The glyph, font structure, line style, grammar, etc. are in the same line with today’s Chinese characters. “Oracle is the genes of the Chinese nation. Knowing the past is to better understand the present, to understand the present, and to do well in the present is for the future. This is a continuous development process.”

Actually, yes Oracle’s exploration is not a “single fight” in China. There are researches in more than a dozen countries, including the United States, Japan, and Canada. Whether it is going to academic conferences together or sending published research works to each other, Chinese oracle bones researchers have always maintained exchanges with their international counterparts. Liu Yiman also believes that only when everyone learns and exchanges together can the development of oracle bones be promoted, because “oracle bones has become a world-wide knowledge”.

In the past ten years, the five-in-one Oracle description of rubbings, facsimiles, color photos, interpretations, and indexes has gradually been promoted. In a broad sense, the study of oracle bones includes integrating the theories, research methods, and materials of multiple disciplines such as paleographology, history, archeology, historical culture, historical documentation, and cultural anthropology to deeply study the history and culture recorded in oracle bone inscriptions. The background and some of its own laws of Oracle bone inscriptions are a diverse and specialized subject, so they need to be inherited and carried forward.

Twenty-three years ago, Shi Zhangru and Liu Yiman had conversations with young and old in Yinxu archaeology. Now Liu Yiman also often has academic exchanges with young archaeologists. At present, Peking University, Shandong University, Jilin University and many other colleges and universities in China have established ancient writing research institutes, and more than 100 masters and doctors have been trained. “We must inherit the Chinese civilization and the excellent traditions of the Chinese nation, and carry it forward.”

“There will always be more we don’t know than we know”, this sentence is in the study of Oracle The field is widely circulated. Liu Yiman said that in the future, there are still many fields that need to be deepened by future generations, such as the digitization and digitization of Oracle data, the establishment of Oracle information databases, the development of key Oracle technologies for computer artificial intelligence in-depth identification, the construction of Oracle’s three-dimensional data modeling archives, and Oracle Three-dimensional micro-mark analysis of the engraving process, etc.

“Put Oracle research on the wings of science and technology, and you will surely achieve brilliant results in the future.” Liu Yiman said.