Live all in one fell swoopBy yqqlm yqqlm
In September 2013, China’s first pilot free trade zone Born in Shanghai. During the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, my country’s pilot free trade zones have been expanded several times, and have grown to 21, forming a reform and opening up innovation pattern covering the east, west, north, and south. The picture shows the panorama of Chongqing Liangjiang New District Digital Economy Industrial Park in the China (Chongqing) Pilot Free Trade Zone. According to Xinhua News Agency
The times are turbulent, and there are always some key nodes that leave a huge weight on the historical coordinates.
In early 1992, Comrade Deng Xiaoping went all the way south and issued another declaration of ideological emancipation; in the early summer, Comrade Jiang Zemin delivered an important speech on the socialist market economy at the Central Party School. The wheel of history continued to move forward, and finally came to that golden autumn-from October 12th to 18th, 1992, the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was grandly held in Beijing. This meeting established the goal of reforming the socialist market economy system, and China’s economic reform of “crossing the river by feeling the stones” finally broke through the barriers of the planned economy.
Undoubtedly, this is an unprecedented great undertaking: the market economy is written on the banner of socialism for the first time. This is a major development of Marxism by the Chinese Communists, and a new historical significance for the realization of reform and opening up. The breakthrough opened the way to reality.
As you can see, this is a key decision to change the destiny: After nearly 30 years of development, my country’s total economic volume has exceeded 100 trillion yuan, and the per capita GDP has exceeded US$10,000 for two consecutive years. Great historic achievements have been made in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
“In the 1990s, we will initially establish a new economic system to achieve the second-step development goal of reaching a moderately prosperous level. After another 20 years of hard work, by the 100th anniversary of the founding of the party, We will form a set of more mature and stereotyped systems in all aspects.” Today, the great wheel of the era is reaching the extraordinary node of the centenary anniversary of the founding of the party. Looking back at this paragraph of the report of the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, we will stare at The magnificent picture drawn in the relay race is even more refreshing with the oriental wind.
At the beginning of 1992, nearly 14 years of reform and opening up, the market’s role in regulating economic activities has been greatly enhanced. However, it is difficult to conceal the murmur of the booming trend—some people have raised questions about the reform and opening up as “social” or “capital”; the booming trend is also difficult to cover up the difficulties of development—the original economic system can no longer adapt to the development of social productivity. The repairs and repairs under the framework of the planned economy are far from solving the problem.
How and where the basic path of reform, opening up and modernization is going has become a major issue that the Chinese Communist Party must resolve. In 1992, Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s southern talks pointed out the direction for answering these questions.
On June 9th, when Comrade Jiang Zemin delivered a speech at the provincial and ministerial-level cadre training class of the Central Party School, he addressed the discussion on the establishment of a new economic system that “established plans and market-integrated socialist goods Opinions such as “economic system”, “establishing a socialist planned market economic system” and “socialist market economic system” clearly stated: “In my personal opinion, I am more inclined to use the term “socialist market economic system”.” On the 12th, Comrade Deng Xiaoping expressed his support for the use of this formulation.
On October 12, 1992, at the opening ceremony of the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the report of the tenth draft was placed in front of more than 2,000 representatives. The report pointed out that what kind of target model my country’s economic system reform determines is a major issue related to the overall situation of the entire socialist modernization drive. The core of this problem is to correctly understand and handle the relationship between the plan and the market. The goal of my country’s economic system reform is to establish a socialist market economic system to facilitate the further liberation and development of productive forces.
This fascinating conclusion put an end to the dispute between the market and the plan, and solved the question mark concerning the overall situation of socialist modernization. The report of the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made it clear that the socialist market economic system we want to establish is to enable the market to play a fundamental role in the allocation of resources under the macro-control of socialist countries. “The 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China opened a new journey of combining socialism and market economy. It played a very important role in emancipating the mind and further promoting reform at that time. It was a milestone.” The Central Party School (National School of Administration) Marxist School Long Zhang Zhanbin said.
The establishment of goals is only the first step. After the confrontation of ideas and the transformation of thinking, there must be substantial measures.
Focusing on the reform goal of establishing a socialist market economic system, the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to conscientiously grasp several important links-transforming the operating mechanism of state-owned enterprises, especially large and medium-sized enterprises, and pushing enterprises to the market ; Continue to vigorously develop the commodity market, especially the market for means of production, accelerate the pace of price reform; deepen the reform of the distribution system and the social security system; accelerate the transformation of government functions, and delegate the rights to enterprises. Neither central government departments nor local governments may intercept them.
Every point is directed at the problem and hits the key point—the reform of state-owned enterprises is the central link in the establishment of a socialist market economy; price reform is the key to market development and economic system reform; the transformation of government functions is the superstructure Adapt to the economic foundation and promote the major issues of economic development.
All in one fell swoop. As a result, contemporary China has opened the curtain of economic transformation, social transformation, and the transformation of development mode.
In November 1993, the Third Plenary Session of the 14th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China reviewed and approved the “Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Several Issues Concerning the Establishment of a Socialist Market Economic System”. The principle is concretized.
The reform of the economic system has begun to expand in depth. Breakthroughs have been made in reforms in fiscal and taxation, finance, foreign exchange, price, and state-owned enterprise reforms: the price of grain purchase and sale and operations have been fully liberalized, and the implementation of the 40-year unified purchase and marketing system for food and invoices ended in 1993; in 1994, the tax-sharing system reform established a market economy Under the conditions, the basic institutional framework of the financial distribution relationship between the central and local governments; more than 2,700 state-owned enterprises have carried out trials to establish a modern enterprise system, reformed the company system and the shareholding system; implemented a single-management floating exchange rate system…
“Socialist market The advent of the economy has mobilized the enthusiasm of the people and pushed forward reform and opening up. The reform of state-owned enterprises has continued to grow, the private economy has grown slowly, and our country has entered a new state of development.” Zhang Zhanbin said.
Following the trajectory of the socialist market economy, the Communist Party of China has continuously deepened its understanding of the relationship between the government and the market, and has continuously created new prospects for development.
In 1997, the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made “public ownership as the mainstay and the common development of multiple ownership economies” as the basic economic system in the primary stage of socialism, realizing a major innovation in ownership theory;
In 2002, the Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that the market’s fundamental role in resource allocation should be brought into full play;
In 2003, the Third Plenary Session of the Sixteenth Central Committee issued the The Decision on Several Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Socialist Market Economic System” marks China’s entry into a period of institutional innovation with the improvement of the market economic system as its core content;
In 2007, the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that the system should be improved. Give full play to the basic role of the market in the allocation of resources;
In 2012, the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that the basic role of the market in the allocation of resources should be played to a greater extent and in a wider range;
Looking back on the road, it is not difficult to find that the establishment of a socialist market economic system has not only laid the basic path and direction of reform and opening up, but also created a magnificent era in China.
An era has its theme, and each generation has its own mission.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the understanding of the staged characteristics of economic development has continued to deepen. In 2013, the Party Central Committee made a judgment that my country’s economic development is in the “three-phase superposition” phase of the shifting period of growth rate, the painful period of structural adjustment, and the digestion period of the previous stimulus policies.
Similarly, the relationship between the government and the market has been looking for a new scientific position. In November 2013, the Third Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China deliberated and approved the “Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Several Major Issues of Comprehensively Deepening Reform” (referred to as the “Decision”), which clearly stated that “make the market play a decisive role in the allocation of resources and better Play the role of the government”.
From 1992 to 2013, the wheel of history has gone through 21 years; from “basic” to “decisive”, the change of two words means that the role and positioning of the market is no longer just ” The adjustment of “quantity” has improved the “quality”. This is the objective requirement of development and the inevitable trend of reform, and it embodies the firm determination of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core to comprehensively deepen reforms.
Improve the property rights protection system, further deepen the reform of state-owned enterprises, abolish unreasonable regulations on various forms of non-public ownership, implement a unified market access system, and reform the market supervision system, where prices can be formed by the market All these are left to the market, expanding internal and external reforms of the financial industry, and improving the taxation system… These roadmaps and methodology are clarified in the “Decision”.
Practical development never ends. Since then, the economy has entered a new normal, a new development concept, and the economy has turned to a high-quality development stage. Reform and opening up are endless. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the “Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Accelerating the Improvement of the Socialist Market Economic System in the New Era” have pointed out the direction for deepening reform.
As a result, we were able to see that the sound and perfection of the socialist market economy system has entered the “fast lane”: the optimization and reorganization of state-owned enterprises has accelerated; for the first time, the deployment of legal protection of property rights in the form of a central document; marketization of factors Allocation reforms are being promoted in an all-round way; the reform of decentralization, management and service is deepened, and the business environment is continuously optimized; the reform of the rural land system releases the huge vitality of China’s rural areas; business tax bids farewell to the historical stage, and implements unprecedented tax and fee reduction policies…
< p>Therefore, we can see that in 2020, China will become the only major economy in the world to achieve positive economic growth, and it will achieve great historical achievements in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.
Today, a bigger game has been rolled out. The outline of the “14th Five-Year Plan” is clear, with the theme of promoting high-quality development, the main line of deepening supply-side structural reforms, and reform and innovation as the fundamental driving force to achieve economic stability and long-term development.
Zhang Zhanbin said that it is necessary to focus on improving the property rights system and the market-oriented allocation of factors, further consolidate the “two unshakable”, accelerate the improvement of the socialist market economic system, build a high-standard market system, and further liberate peace Develop productivity.
History is the key to the future. In the relay race of the Chinese Communists, the blueprint for reform outlined with one heart and one mind, stroke by stroke, has turned into a magnificent picture of thousands of sails competing with each other. In the future, China’s economic giant will continue to ride the wind and waves and create new brilliance!
(Reporter Chen Chen Liu Kun)