Stable expansion of consumption and increase of residents’ income through multiple channels are the basic policy directions for the future
Stabilize and expand consumption and increase residents’ income through multiple channels
The consumption growth in my country was still negative last year. How to boost consumption? The government work report proposes to stabilize and expand consumption. Increase residents’ income through multiple channels. Some experts said that expanding employment, preventing poverty, and increasing the income of the elderly, especially the retired population, is also expanding consumption. In addition, increasing the income growth of low- and middle-income residents so that they have the ability to expand consumption is a basic policy direction in the future.
This year, the central government’s basic research expenditures will increase by 10.6%
Basic research is the source of technological innovation. It is necessary to improve the stable support mechanism and substantially increase investment. The central government’s basic research expenditures will increase by 10.6 %. Implement the policy of expanding the autonomy of the use of funds, improve the project review and talent evaluation mechanism, effectively reduce the unreasonable burden of scientific researchers, and achieve major breakthroughs in key core areas with the spirit of “10 years of grinding a sword”.
Science and technology innovation must go to utilitarianism
Introduced by Xiao Youdan, a researcher at the Institute of Science and Technology Strategy Consulting of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the expression “10 years of grinding a sword” entered the government work report for the first time. On the one hand, it objectively reflects the long-term characteristics of basic research compared with other applied research institutes. On the other hand, it also directly reflects the goal direction of China’s relevant policy and institutional reforms this year and for the next period: more emphasis is placed on scientific researchers in basic research. The endogenous role of the basic research activities, the more emphasis on the scientific laws of basic research activities, and the overall improvement of the stability and predictability of the basic research institutional environment.
Xiao Youdan believes that “a sword in ten years” reflects the respect for the scientific laws of basic research, which means that researchers must guard against arrogance and rashness, sit on a cold bench, and show that technological innovation is going to go. utilitarianism. This also puts forward new requirements for the technology management system and scientific research ecology. Dare to put forward new theories, open up new fields, explore new paths, and work hard on originality, which will inevitably require more stable, sustainable and healthy basic research policies, management systems, and scientific research ecological environment.
Liu Yidong, a researcher at the Institute of the History of Natural Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, believes that the strengthening of basic research requires corresponding conditions, such as increasing investment, loose assessment, innovative cultural construction, and deepening the reform of the scientific and technological system, but the most important thing is to eliminate “Five Weis”, especially to get rid of the “only hats”, let first-class talents stand out and give full play to their roles.
Liu Yidong said that first-class talents are those who make original innovations, disruptive innovations, and breakthrough innovations. Making original innovations includes three links: making results, publishing, and gaining peer recognition. At present, there are few original innovations in our country, and there are too many “hats” of talents. High-end “hats” talents have a lot of right to speak. As academician Xu Kuangdi, former president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, pointed out: Project review and expert voting often “voted” disruptive technologies.
Liu Yidong believes that the effective way to solve these problems is to implement a representative work evaluation system, display academic achievements and breakthrough points, original points, and subversion points on the Internet, and then list similar results recognized by the international academic front for inventory. Compare and then conduct academic evaluation.
Increase residents’ income through multiple channels and expand consumption in counties and townships
Stabilize and expand consumption. Increase residents’ income through multiple channels. Improve the urban and rural distribution system, speed up e-commerce and express delivery into rural areas, and expand county and township consumption. Steady increase in bulk consumption of automobiles and home appliances, remove unreasonable restrictions on second-hand car transactions, increase parking lots, charging piles, and power station swapping facilities, and speed up the construction of a power battery recycling system.
Improve the income growth of low- and middle-income residents
Last year, the total retail sales of consumer goods fell by 3.9% year-on-year, and consumption continued to grow negatively. How to boost consumption?
Cao Yuanzheng, chairman of the Bank of China International Research Corporation, said that in the long run, increasing demand is still the core issue of the economy. Judging from the experience of the past four decades, the most important factor in China’s economic growth is the increase in residents’ income. The income of low- and middle-income residents and rural residents has increased, and a new phenomenon has emerged, which is the overcapacity of heavy industry, but the sales of light industry and durable consumer goods are booming. This has given us an inspiration: The main body of Chinese residents is the low- and middle-income class. If the income of this group continues to grow, the domestic market can continue to expand, and it can be further shared with the world. Increasing the income growth of low- and middle-income residents will enable them to expand consumption. This is also a basic policy direction in the future.
Cao Yuanzheng pointed out that this year’s government work report proposes to expand employment, employment growth, family income will increase, and family consumption will be expanded. In terms of preventing return to poverty, improving the quality of life of rural residents will also be manifested as an increase in hidden income. Increasing the allocation of state-owned capital to social security, in order to increase the income of the elderly, especially the retired population, and shorten the income gap, this is also expanding consumption.
Let consumption become a supporting force for driving economic growth
Yao Jingyuan, former chief economist of the National Bureau of Statistics and a special researcher of the Counsel’s Office of the State Council, said that the macro-economy must develop steadily, healthily and sustainably. The important thing is to make consumption a supporting force that drives economic growth. To solve the consumption problem, one is to make everyone rich and to do everything possible to expand employment; the other is to solve a series of problems in the initial distribution. In addition, it is recommended to study the increase of the personal income tax threshold.
“As far as I know, the monthly income of food delivery and express delivery personnel in Beijing can reach tens of thousands of yuan, but they are very hard. They have to work more than ten hours a day, support their families, and collect personal income tax in accordance with the current policies. The burden is a bit heavy.” Yao Jingyuan said, “I advocate raising the tax threshold, so that the income of low- and middle-income groups will become their consumption. It is understood that the marginal propensity to consume for low- and middle-income groups is still relatively high.”
Resolutely curb the “non-agriculturalization” of cultivated land and prevent “non-grainization”
The key to ensuring food security is seeds and cultivated land. It is necessary to strengthen the protection and utilization of germplasm resources and the selection and promotion of high-quality varieties, and carry out research on key agricultural key technologies. Improve the construction standards and quality of high-standard farmland, improve irrigation facilities, strengthen the protection of cultivated land, and resolutely curb the “non-agriculturalization” of cultivated land and prevent “non-graining”.
Ensure the safety of arable land and keep the red line of 1.8 billion acres of arable land
Hu Dinghuan, a researcher at the Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, believes that to ensure the supply of food and agricultural products, we must first ensure the safety of arable land. Keeping the red line of 1.8 billion mu of arable land, “this is the lifeline of my country’s food security and the lifeline of 1.4 billion people.” At present, the country attaches great importance to the protection of cultivated land, but some cultivated land is still being used for “non-agriculturalization and non-grainization”.
Hu Dinghuan said that my country’s land resources are limited. If cultivated land is occupied, it will affect food security and damage the ecology. Therefore, the country needs to have mandatory regulations to keep the red line of cultivated land, and agricultural cultivated land will not be used for other purposes. use.
Hu Dinghuan believes that at present, my country’s overall ration guarantee capacity is sufficient, but in the future there is still a problem of how to further improve agricultural production efficiency. At present, the overall level of domestic agricultural production is good, but the effects of mechanized production cannot be fully utilized. Small-scale planting and production are carried out by households in rural areas. The prerequisite for fully utilizing the effects of mechanization is large-scale production.
Hu Dinghuan suggested that in the future, agricultural production-related systems can be further improved, agricultural machinery can be popularized, and limited arable land can play a greater role in production.
Establish a stable growth mechanism for agricultural science and technology investment
How to improve the current situation of agricultural scientific research and further promote the rapid development of agricultural science and technology? Wang Jing, a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and chief scientist of the Agrochemical Pollutant Residue Detection and Behavior Research Innovation Team of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, suggested that the existing scientific research investment mechanism should be improved through a number of measures to enhance my country’s agricultural scientific research capabilities.
Wang Jing believes that the requirements for the priority development of agriculture and rural areas should be implemented. “Establish an investment mechanism for the development of agricultural science and technology with more priority to ensure that the investment intensity is not lower than the national science and technology investment intensity. Establish a stable growth mechanism for agricultural science and technology investment to make The investment in agricultural science and technology research and development will gradually increase to more than 2% of the total agricultural output value. Continue to invest in independent innovation in the seed industry and major scientific and technological projects in agricultural biological breeding. Pay attention to the construction of basic agricultural long-term scientific and technological platform facilities, and give priority to the construction of national laboratories in the agricultural field And other major scientific research platforms to strengthen the leading and supporting role of science and technology in the modernization of agriculture and rural areas.” Secondly, increase the proportion of science and technology investment in basic and non-profit research institutions.
The value-added tax threshold for small-scale taxpayers will be increased by 50,000 yuan
The value-added tax threshold for small-scale taxpayers will be increased from 100,000 yuan per month to 150,000 yuan. On the part of small and micro enterprises and individual industrial and commercial households whose annual taxable income is less than 1 million yuan, on the basis of the current preferential policies, the income tax will be halved. All localities must implement tax reduction policies in a timely manner to ensure that market players should enjoy them all.
Last year, it reduced the burden of market entities by more than 2.6 trillion yuan
There is good news in the government work report to help companies reduce the burden!
The report pointed out that the continued implementation of the 75% deduction policy for corporate R&D expenses will increase the percentage of additional deductions for manufacturing companies to 100%, and use tax incentives to encourage companies to increase R&D investment, and focus on promoting companies to increase their investment in research and development. Innovation leads development.
“Since 2014, companies have invested more than 48 million yuan in research and development, and enjoy high-tech corporate income tax concessions, R&D expenses plus deductions and other benefits totaling more than 23 million yuan.” Representative of the National People’s Congress, Hefei Royalstar Electronics Group Co., Ltd. Pan Baochun, chairman of the company, said that the strengthening of preferential tax policies such as deductions for research and development expenses will better help enterprises to innovate and develop.
In 2020, in the face of unprecedented shocks in history, through the implementation of phased large-scale tax and fee reductions, combined with institutional arrangements, the burden of market entities will be reduced by more than 2.6 trillion yuan throughout the year, of which social security will be reduced or exempted. The fee is 1.7 trillion yuan.
Lei Hong, deputy to the National People’s Congress and chairman of Guilin Art Performance Co., Ltd., said that the national tax reduction and fee reduction policy measures are strong and wide-ranging. Last year, the income from theatrical performances obtained by enterprises is fully tax-free, and social security fees It has also greatly reduced the exemption, which has provided great support for enterprises to deal with the impact of the epidemic.
A series of burden reduction measures support the development of the real economy
The “14th Five-Year Plan” is a new start to help market players rejuvenate and enhance their vitality. How to optimize the implementation of this year’s tax reduction policy?