How did life on land recover after the mass extinction?
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This international research team is composed of China University of Geosciences, California Academy of Sciences, Researchers from the University of Ristol, Missouri University of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences have shown for the first time that the end-Permian mass extinction was more severe than other events due to the collapse of species diversity.
To better describe “big With the characteristics of extinction, the research team tried to understand why the community did not recover as quickly as other mass extinctions. The main reason is that the crisis at the end of the Permian is much more serious than any other mass extinction, and 19 out of every 20 species have been eliminated. Only 5% of the species survive, and the ecosystem has been destroyed, which means that the ecological community must be regrouped from scratch.
The main author and researcher Yuaneng Huang, currently at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan, reconstructed the food chain for a series of 14 life combinations spanning the Permian and Triassic. These compositions are sampled from the North China region and provide a snapshot of how a region on the planet is responding to a crisis. “By studying the fossils and the evidence of their teeth, stomach contents and excrement, I was able to determine who ate whom,” Huang said. “If we want to understand these ancient ecosystems, it is important to establish an accurate food chain.”
These food chains are composed of plants, mollusks and insects that live in ponds and rivers, as well as fish, amphibians and reptiles that feed on them. Reptiles range in size from modern lizards to half-ton herbivores. They have small heads, usually have huge barrel-shaped bodies, and are protected by thick bony scales. Some are as big and powerful as lions, with long canine teeth that can pierce the thick skin of their prey. When these animals died out in the mass extinction at the end of the Permian, nothing took their place, leaving the ecosystem out of balance for 10 million years. Then, the first dinosaurs and mammals began to evolve in the Triassic. The first dinosaurs were small bipedal insectivores about one meter long – but they quickly became larger and more diverse, becoming carnivorous and plant-eating animals.
“We found that the end-Permian events were special in two ways,” said Professor Mike Benton of the University of Bristol. “First, the collapse of diversity is much more serious, while in the other two mass extinctions, there has been a low stability ecosystem before the final collapse. Second, the ecosystem will take a long time to recover, maybe 1,000 Ten thousand years or more, and after the other two crises, the recovery was rapid.”
Finally, describe the characteristics of the community, especially those communities that have successfully recovered as modern species including humans. The upper dominance provides valuable insights.
“This is an amazing new Results,” said Professor Zhong-Qiang Chen from China University of Geosciences in Wuhan. “Until now, we can describe the food chain, but we cannot test their stability. The combination of new data from North China and cutting-edge computing methods allows us to access these ancient examples in the same way that we study the food chain in modern times.”</ p>