Zhou Enlai’s answer:Why did Chairman Mao decide not to claim compensation from Japan, but also to normalize Sino-Japanese diplomatic relations?
At noon on September 25, 1972, an airplane arrived at Beijing Capital Airport. After landing, with the door opened, the first Japanese visiting China Aida Nakakaku Rong and his party walked down slowly.
This time, Premier Zhou Enlai personally greeted him, Mr. Tanaka When he stepped off the gangway, he immediately stepped forward and stretched out his hand and said:”Welcome!”
Tanaka seemed a little excited, and quickly reached out and shook hands with Zhou Enlai enthusiastically, his head slightly Lean forward to thank Zhou Enlai for welcoming.
Premier Zhou Enlai’s airport greets the Prime Minister of JapanTanaka Kakuei
This is also the”ice-breaking” of Sino-Japanese relations in the past two decades. journey of. Unexpectedly, at the welcome dinner that day, there was a verbal barrier between the two sides, and there was a big disagreement on this.
After leaving the airport, Tanaka Kakuei And the entourage was arranged to check in at the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse. Seven months ago, President Nixon of the United States who visited China also lived here. Therefore, from the perspective of diplomatic etiquette, it is not difficult to see that China has given Japan enough face.
Of course, Tian Zhongli also knows that it is certainly not easy for this visit to China to quickly achieve the expected diplomatic effect. There are huge ethnic conflicts between the two countries because of the”war of aggression”. , It is impossible to heal in a short time, and it is difficult to reach an understanding.
Therefore, on the afternoon of the day after moving in, Tanaka seemed a little anxious, and immediately proposed to start the first round of negotiations with the Chinese government, hoping that the two sides could reach a consensus as soon as possible and achieve satisfactory results in the end.
Zhou Enlai was seriously ill at this time, but was still busy in front-line diplomatic work. After learning the request of the Japanese side, there was no time to rest, so he immediately began to arrange staff to prepare for the meeting, and then he was in the Great Hall of the People We met with Kakuei Tanaka and formally held friendly discussions.
At the meeting, Zhou Enlai extended a warm welcome to Tanaka’s visit and spoke highly of his measures to promote Sino-Japanese relations. Tanaka also expressed his gratitude to the Chinese side for the hospitality, and at the same time expressed apologies for the crimes committed by the”Japanese War of Aggression against China”.
Then the two sides reached a preliminary consensus on how to promote the normalization of Sino-Japanese relations and exchanged views with each other.
As usual, that night Zhou Enlai was Japan Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and his entourage hosted a welcome banquet, and immediately took the stage to give a speech, expressing a warm welcome to the Japanese visit. After the speech, Zhou Enlai returned to his seat.
Tanaka Kakuei took the stage to give a speech and talked about In the history between the two countries, he said that Japan had “caused trouble” for the Chinese people, and sincerely apologized for this, and at the same time carried out a deep “reflection”.
Zhou Enlai and Tanaka Kakuei
Zhou Enlai After listening to the translator’s words, his face immediately darkened After I got down, I immediately communicated with other translators around me about the meaning of the word”troublesome”. After getting an affirmative answer, I felt like I was stabbed in my heart, and I felt bad.
However, after Tanaka’s speech was over, Zhou Enlai still behaved more generously and applauded courteously with everyone. However, the more I think about it, the less it feels, and I can’t help feeling dissatisfied and angry.
Since the”September 18″ incident, Japan has forcibly invaded and occupied China’s territory, began wantonly plundering our country’s precious resources, ruining innocent citizens, and unilaterally launched a war of aggression, causing countless Chinese people to be miserably displaced. Forced to split their families and destroy their lives, how many patriotic soldiers had a bloody battlefield, every inch of mountains and rivers, and an inch of blood, until the end of the heroic sacrifice…
Such a heinous war Behavior, such exhausted and difficult to read historical facts, how can we sum up and summarize all the facts in a lightly”adding trouble”? To be able to obtain the tolerance and understanding of the Chinese people is nothing short of a delusion!
The next day, China and Japan conducted the second formal negotiation, Zhou Enlaistyle="color:1A74FF; --tt-darkmode-color:1A74FF;">Zhou Enlai
span> has a serious expression and resolutely expressed strong dissatisfaction with Tanaka’s speech last night, and believes that the Japanese side only used”trouble” to describe the huge harm it has caused to the Chinese people, which is completely Avoid the heavy and light, there is no meaning of reflection at all.
This lightly understatement, it is inappropriate to make such a”statement” on such an important occasion. It has also aroused strong resentment from the Chinese people and hurt the friendly heart of the Chinese people! This is unacceptable and unacceptable to us!
After hearing Premier Zhou Enlai’s righteous remarks, Tanaka may have been”conscious”. He felt that this was inappropriate and hurriedly explained :”This word in Japanese means a sincere apology, and it also means not to commit another crime and to ask for forgiveness.”
Zhou Enlai communicated with Kakuei Tanaka
Following, Tanaka added:”If this expression is inappropriate in the Chinese context, you can Change according to Chinese idiom.”
After Zhou Enlai listened to it, his expression eased, and he said to Tanaka:“This”troublesome” means very trivial in Chinese. It is like going to someone else’s house to borrow something, and then returning it to someone after it’s done. So I say that. It must be pointed out specifically.” This matter was skipped.
Tanaka Kakuei just breathed a sigh of relief, but the content of the next negotiation immediately made him sweat again.
Zhou Enlai first stated that if the Sino-Japanese relations are to be normalized, then the Japanese side must Immediately interrupt the”Japan-Taiwan Treaty”, recognize the”One China” stance, which is also The bottom line and basic principles of China’s foreign policy.
The Japanese Foreign Minister Masahiro Ohira, who was sitting on the side, met with Kakuei Tanaka, and then looked at the thin Zhou Enlai, to show that Japan respects China’s wishes. As long as China and Japan successfully establish diplomatic relations, they span class=”entity-word” data-gid=”880508″>The treaty signed by Chiang Kai-shek will naturally become invalid, and there will be no”diplomatic relations” in the future. There is no problem.
After the two sides have exchanged views, the” Sino-Japanese Joint Statement to be issued later” conducted in-depth discussions and began friendly consultations on some more detailed issues, such as Japan’s need to agree to China’s claims, recognize”Taiwan It is part of Chinese territory”, the treaty between Japan and Jiang is”illegal, invalid and must be abolished” and so on.
Although the Japanese side has repeatedly stated that the treaty was approved by the Congress and the issue of war reparations involved in it, Chiang Kai-shek has clearly stated that it waives the right to compensation. If it is to be abolished, it must be approved by the Congress, otherwise it will make the Japanese people mistakenly believe that it has been To deceive, or find other more appropriate ways of expression.
Zhou Enlai and Tanaka Kaorong at the dinner
However, China adhered to its consistent position and principle, and immediately expressed its opposition. As for specific expression issues, Japan can propose amendments, but these key contents must be included in the joint statement.
As for the issue of war reparations, Premier Zhou Enlai said:”Starting from the friendly relationship between the two peoples, The Chinese government has waived its request for compensation, but Chinese private compensation is not within the scope of negotiation.”
It must be noted here that compensation at the national level is based on strategic considerations, which will be analyzed in detail later, but compensation by Chinese people has always existed!
It’s also worth mentioning that based on the overall situation of Sino-Japanese diplomatic relations, the controversy over the Diaoyu Islands, this”nail” planted by one of the U.S. empires has also been temporarily put on hold. Save it for the future.
On the afternoon of September 27th, after two days of fierce debate, the two sides finally reached a relatively satisfactory result without violating the principles, and reached a preliminary agreement on many issues.
Originally, Chairman Mao did not arrange an appointment with the Japanese delegation, but that night, Chairman Mao Zedong suddenly decided to meet Kakuei Tanaka in person, which surprised many people.
I heard that Chairman Mao wants to see him, maybe some Excited and nervous, in order to ease the emotions in his heart, Kakuei Tanaka just walked into the chairman’s study and proposed to go to the bathroom.
Chairman Mao sat down and waited for him. In his later years, Chairman Mao met foreign guests in his study.
After the two formal talks began, Chairman Mao A funny question:“Have you quarreled? Are you arguing!”
Tanaka didn’t expect that Chairman Mao would start like this. He felt much better when he was nervous. He quickly answered :”No, No, the conversation was very harmonious and basically an agreement was reached.”
Chairman Mao said to Japanese Foreign Minister Masahiro Ohira again:”It seems that the world is peaceful.”
Everyone could not help but laugh after listening, and the awkward atmosphere of the meeting immediately changed Have to relax.
Mao Zedong meets Tanaka Kakuei
Then Chairman Mao began to say :”If you don’t make a noise, you won’t make a deal! This time, there are two major countries in the world that may not be at ease, and I don’t understand what’s going on.”
“Americans this year February came and didn’t talk about anything. You immediately ran ahead of them.”Chairman Mao Then said.
Tanaka listened and said, “Just last month, Kissinger asked me in Tokyo why I am in a hurry to visit China, I told him that the relationship between China and Japan is much longer than the relationship between the United States and Japan.”
Chairman Mao nodded slightly and said,”When you were still running, I was more optimistic about you. I always felt that only you Liberal Democratic Party can Solve the issue of the restoration of diplomatic relations between China and Japan.”
After the talks, Chairman Mao said:”I like reading, which is also the joy of my life.” Pointing to a set of”Chu Ci Ji Zhu” on the bookcase, he continued,”This set of books is quite a gift for Tanaka.”
Zhou Enlai hurriedly stepped forward to take down the book and handed it to Tanaka.
Tanaka took the book while holding Chairman Mao’s hand, thanking him repeatedly, saying that he would learn more about Chinese culture and wish Chairman Mao a long and healthy life.
Followingly, to show his sincerity, Tanaka also gave back a Japanese traditional painting called”Spring Dawn”, implying that the spring of China and Japan is approaching and a new chapter in history will begin.
At the time of parting, Mao Zedong gave a book to Cape Tanaka Rong
The meaning of Chairman Mao’s delivery of the book is also self-evident. The Collection of Notes on the Songs of Chu includes patriotic poets Qu Yuan‘s many famous articles have immeasurable significance and special feelings for the Chinese people. Thanks to this, I also imply that Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka should not over whitewash the war crimes that Japan has committed, and the national sentiments of the Chinese people. Violation and blasphemy are never tolerated!
As for Tanaka’s expression of”adding trouble”, Zhou Enlai had actually known Chairman Mao a long time ago, which of course made Chairman Mao somewhat dissatisfied, so he adopted a book donation to express himself. Attitude, but I don’t know if Tanaka understands the meaning.
However, with Chairman Mao’s meeting, all the details of the negotiations between China and Japan were easily resolved, and the”race” between the two sides soon came to an end.
On September 28, the last round of negotiations between the two parties was held, and final consultations were held on the content of the joint statement, and then a mutual agreement was reached, which was agreed to be announced on September 29.
At ten o’clock in the morning the next day, the Chinese and Japanese governments formally held the signing ceremony of the”China-Japan Joint Statement” in the West Hall of the Great Hall of the People, and then announced to the world:
China and Japan ended their abnormal diplomatic status and decided to formally establish diplomatic relations on September 29, 1972. ······· On the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, jointly develop friendly relations between the two countries.
China-Japan Joint Statement published by People’s Daily
The Japanese Foreign Minister Masahiro Ohira will be held immediately after the ceremony After the press conference, on behalf of the Japanese government, it was announced that as a result of the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan, the”Japan-Taiwan Agreement” has lost the meaning of its continued existence.
Since then, Kakuei Tanaka’s”ice-breaking” journey in Sino-Japanese relations has officially ended and achieved complete success. From the establishment of the Tanaka cabinet to the signing of the joint declaration, it only took less than three years. A month’s time, it can be described as lightning speed, and everything seems to be a matter of course.
Later, when Premier Zhou Enlai talked about why our country had to give up war reparations, he made the following explanation:”After many in-depth exchanges with the chairman, I finally decided not to claim compensation from Japan. Why? What? We Chinese people have suffered too much indemnity. Just look at the series of unequal treaties in the late Qing Dynasty. If you make a claim to Japan, you will eventually get it out of the pockets of the Japanese people, which will not do much to the Japanese government. The trouble.”
Of course, this is only a brief overview of Premier Zhou Enlai. In addition to causing a huge burden on the Japanese people, there are actually deeper reasons.
As early as the 1950s, Japan has made war indemnities against Southeast Asian countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia, and Myanmar. , But not directly giving money, but giving equivalent materials and technical assistance , following the example of the”Marshall Plan” of the United States to assist Europe. The cunning Japanese adopted a policy of”building a country by trade”.
Take Indonesia, where Japan pays the most compensation, as an example. After multiple rounds of negotiations, the two sides have determined a compensation plan totaling 80.3 billion yen. At that time, Indonesia was just established, and it was in a state of agrarian society. Not only was it large in size and large in population, it basically had no industrial foundation, and people lived in extreme poverty.
On the surface, it is true that after Japanese companies arrived in Indonesia, they helped build a lot of infrastructure such as highways, hotels, shopping malls, etc., which provided Indonesian people with jobs, a better income, and a significant standard of living. Improve, and the national economy can develop rapidly. But at the same time, a large number of Japanese products quickly occupied Indonesia, allowing Japanese products to open up overseas markets.
The final result is that throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Japan’s average annual GDP growth rate remained above 8%. This invisible trade expansion allowed Japan’s economy to take off rapidly, and Indonesia’s own industry However, the development has so far been sluggish, and instead, they have to request low-interest loans from Japan for support.
Secondly, in the context of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, my country and the Soviet Union Relations continue to deteriorate, and a large number of troops are sent to the north border to look at them. From a strategic point of view, , the enemy’s enemy is also a”friend”, only Only by letting go of our minds and abandoning our premonitions can we alleviate this invisible pressure to a certain extent.
Farewell to Kakuei Tanaka by Zhou Enlai
You can also establish a friendly international image. We can understand even a”mortal enemy” like Japan. People will naturally understand how tolerant and friendly China is and embrace all rivers.
On the contrary, if you always stick to your own opinions and keep Japan out of the door, that is, push into the arms of Chiang Kai-shek, it will not help at all for the future liberation of Taiwan and the great cause of the motherland’s reunification. If you establish diplomatic relations with Japan, you are actually breaking off Taiwan’s”diplomatic” relations. This is the best of both worlds.
Finally, at that time, my country had already won a seat in the United Nations, and it seemed that its international status had improved. But by the end of 1970, there were only more than fifty countries in the world that had established diplomatic relations with China, and most of them were third world countries. Like Chairman Mao’s famous quotation:”Black brothers carried us in. The United Nations”.
Without the establishment of diplomatic relations, it means that international economic and trade activities cannot be carried out without recognizing New China’s legal status in the world. At that time, Western countries led by the United States had blocked China. For more than two decades, I still want to completely isolate China in the Asia-Pacific region. This situation is extremely passive, and there is an urgent need to open international trade channels.
Of course, as far as Japan is concerned, they also urgently need to open up overseas markets, especially for a populous country like China, which is also a huge benefit for them. In short, the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan will allow both parties to achieve mutual benefit, win-win results and common prosperity.
Therefore, Chairman Mao and Zhou Enlai both decided not to pay Japanese war reparations. Moreover, they assisted in the construction, but they were repaired. Most of them were shoddy, which was meaningless.
Premier Zhou Enlai appeared to be particularly happy at the banquet to bid farewell to Kakuei Tanaka and his party, and talked with everyone frequently. The Japanese side also showed some excitement, especially Foreign Minister Ohira, who was particularly excited. He kept toasting at the banquet, quite a bit of joy.
After seeing this, Tanaka was very surprised and said to Ohira,”Yeah, yes, Ohira-kun is so happy. I have never seen you drink like this. It is the first time I know that you drink so much. Big.”
Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai together
After listening to the translator’s transcript, Premier Zhou Enlai immediately showed his keen insight as a diplomat. This ordinary language seemed ordinary, but to him, it was completely different. .
Zhou Enlai immediately got up, took the wine glass and walked to the table where Daping was toasting. He echoed some friendly words about China-Japan and good health. Then he said to Daping,”Please come back to your seat with us. , Mr. Daping.” At this time, Daping, who was also slightly drunk, returned to his original seat.
After all, if a foreign minister of a country is drunk at such a large dinner party, it is not a simple problem of gaffe, but it is detrimental to the integrity of the whole country. A joke?
Zhou Prime Minister is just like this, he can always resolve each This kind of difficult problem, especially for the sake of others, even in a complex scene, you can control the details without showing off, which is admirable!
p data-track=”28″>The so-called”During strategic planning, decisive victory thousands of miles away”. The foresight of the two great men, their unparalleled wisdom, and the mind and courage of the world are worthy of future generations to learn and learn from, and will guide the Chinese people to march forward courageously, overcome all difficulties and obstacles, and remain invincible forever!