2021-05-21

It is highly toxic or has life. Bringing Martian soil back to Earth is not a joke, and the consequences are unpredictable.

By yqqlm yqqlm
Production:Space Icarus

The main mission of the Apollo project is to bring back hundreds of kilograms of rock samples from the moon. These were produced by Apollo 11 astronauts 50 years ago. The samples brought back are enough for geologists to study for a lifetime, and there are constant new discoveries. However, no samples have been brought back to the high-profile Mars. In recent decades, NASA and the European Space Agency have planned to bring back a large rock from Mars in the next few years for scientists to study.

Exploring space needs to be carried out in stages. First, spacecraft must be sent to collect original images and data. For example, the Voyager travels through the solar system, or the New Horizons explores Pluto. Next, a probe will be left in the orbit to study the state of the surface in detail. For example, the Cassini spacecraft orbited Saturn 294 times and took more than 450,000 photos. These have completely changed our view of Saturn. Cognition.

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Courage, Opportunity and Curiosity have collectively captured thousands of photos on Mars , Excavated the rock and discovered the existence of water before. In 1970, the Soviet Lunar Project brought back lunar samples for the first time.”Lunar 16″ brought back 101 grams of soil, followed by”Lunar 20″ and”Lunar 24″. But their sampling points are different from the Apollo plan.

The second Collect to The sample is NASA’s”Creation” to collect solar wind. It was launched in 2001, but when the collection was successfully returned to Earth in 2004, due to The parachute failed to open properly and crashed in the Utah desert. Despite the failed landing, scientists found useful samples and found The earth may be formed by a solar nebula with a different composition from the sun.

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Next is NASA’s”Stardust” program ,”Wild 2″ passed through the tail of comet in 2004 and returned to Earth two years later . After analyzing the collected particles, it was found that the formation of comets was different from what scientists predicted.

The last sample brought back is Hayabusa developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Even though it was attacked by solar flares during mission execution, it lost the return wheel and jumped the lander. Unusable, but still brought back a few precious asteroid samples. Currently, Hayabusa No. 2 and OSIRIS-REx are also performing tasks. They will also plan to bring back samples from the satellite of Mars.

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What can we find from the sampling of Mars?

In fact, we already have a certain understanding of the geology and atmospheric structure of Mars. Tens of thousands of years ago, after Mars was hit by a huge planet, the debris formed passed through the earth’s atmosphere And finally landed on the earth. The scientists got a random Martian fragment, but now they want to obtain a specific sample through a sampling plan. In the early 1970s, NASA planned to search from Mars before the launch of the”Viking” spacecraft. Traces of life and bring them back for sampling.

After bringing these brand-new samples back to Earth, scientists can conduct various tests on them to see if they have active bacteria or any signs of life, but there is no conclusion yet. In addition, scientists can retrieve samples from Martian lake sediments, sediments around hydrothermal vents, and ancient river deltas to understand the history of the Martian surface and the impact of water on landforms over millions of years. In addition, you can also collect samples from recent and ancient meteorite impact craters, volcanic eruptions and areas exposed to long-term wind to understand the billions of years of Martian history, when the planets became cold and dry, and asteroids Questions such as when the bombing will end, and even meteorite fragments on Mars can be sampled.

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It is highly toxic or has life, please put Martian soil bringing back to Earth is not a joke,The consequences are unpredictable. We already know that Martian soil contains toxic chemicals. If they are deposited from the atmosphere, will it be dangerous to astronauts? What is the substance under the surface of the earth? These samples are best collected before humans set foot on Mars for the first time, but they must also be strictly isolated to prevent unfriendly substances or organic substances from other celestial bodies from entering the earth’s environment. This is like a foreign substance that may cause serious problems. as a result of.

Mars Sampling Plan

“Mars Sample Collection Survey” is one of the earliest collection missions, which is relatively inexpensive. It passes through the Martian atmosphere to collect dust and gas at altitudes as low as 40 kilometers. Scientists matched the collected atmospheric samples with the gas found in Martian rocks to determine that they all came from Mars. There will be further studies on Martian dust, because it will form a planetary storm, which will pose a threat to both the probe and the astronauts.

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This proposal was put forward in 2001 and is planned for 2007 It was executed and returned after three years, but it was never actually executed. It was not until 2009 that NASA and the European Space Agency announced a joint cooperation aimed at bringing a sample of Mars back to Earth. First, they all need to develop a robot. NASA’s”Mars 2020 probe will collect interesting samples while operating, Eurospace The Bureau’s”Franklin” detector will store the sample in a pen-shaped container that is convenient for access.

The returned sample will consist of three parts.

First, the European Space Agency will develop a rapid sampling probe. After that, the aircraft developed by NASA will send samples to MarsOrbit, and finally, the European Space Agency’s orbital mission will return the samples to Earth.

The European Space Agency’s sampler will not exceed 120 kilograms, travel 20-30 kilometers at a speed of 200 meters per day, and avoid dangerous areas. Afterwards, the 30 most important samples were selected from the samples left by”Franklin” and brought back to Earth.

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In a few months, the sampler will land on something like On the recovery landers of”Curiosity” and”Mars 2020 Rover”. It landed on Mars with a hot shell, and stayed on the surface for 150 days waiting to be picked up. Afterwards, the lift-off vehicle will send it into an orbit of 350 kilometers. The European Space Agency’s Earth Return Orbit Interceptor will intercept it and send it back to Earth using a solar ion engine.

By 2030, scientists will obtain approximately 500 grams of samples from the surface of Mars.

At the beginning of 2019, the White House has included the project in its budget. This is the first official funding, and it is expected to start in 2026 at the earliest. After 50 years of long planning, the Mars sampling project has finally officially kicked off.