Beifeng Village, Xiong’an New District: The “Xiaosu District” in Central Hebei where the party branch was first established
The “Xiaosu District” in Central Hebei where the party branch was first established
“Xiongan New District’s First Party Branch Memorial Hall” located in Beifeng Village.
Tourists visit in the memorial hall.
In 1927, the first place in Anxin County, Baoding, Hebei A rural party branch was established.
In 2017, the state-level new district—Xiongan New District was established.
Time flies for 90 years, this piece of heroic land has laid down a thousand-year plan.
Beifeng Village, Anxin County, Xiong’an New District established the region’s first rural party branch in 1927, and influenced the surrounding areas to establish 76 party branches successively, promoting the development of the Diannan Revolutionary Movement . In the subsequent war years, 84 children in the village died.
On the south bank of Baiyangdian Lake, the wheat on the old road of Zhulong River is waiting to be harvested. One or two “kowtow machines” are pumping oil in the wheat fields. The emerald green reeds in Dianli and the golden wheat on the edge of the lake surround Beifeng Village, which is a gray-white house. The first party branch memorial hall in Xiongan New District is located in the small courtyard in the middle of the village.
What kind of red code is there to be solved in this ordinary village in the North China Plain? What kind of heroic genes are passed on to future generations?
Being “expelled” from the school and returning to the village to establish a party branch
“In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek launched the ’42 counter-revolutionary coup’ in Shanghai. On April 28, Li Dazhao and others in Beijing Twenty people were killed by the Feng clique. The Chinese revolution has entered a low ebb.” Wang Wenxue, the current party branch secretary of Beifeng Village, told reporters from the Beijing News that under this severe situation, on May 19, 1927, the central government decided to establish a foundation in the north. The Communist Party of China went directly to the Provincial Party Committee to perform the functions and powers of the Northern District Committee of the Communist Party of China and lead the work of the Party in the northern region. According to the Baoding City Records, the Shunzhi Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China is served by Peng Shuzhi, a member of the CPC Central Committee, and its management scope is under the control of the Jingzhao Prefecture, Zhili Province, Rehe, Chahar Special Zone, and Feng Yuxiang under the rule of Feng Yuxiang. The CCP organizations in Suiyuan Special Economic Zone and other places were formally established in Tianjin on August 1st.
Subsequently, in accordance with the spirit of the “August 7th Meeting”, the Shunzhi Provincial Party Committee decided to choose a village in the Beijing-Tianjin-bao area where the party and the masses are good to establish a party organization and lead the masses to carry out revolutionary struggles. At that time, Liu Yiyu, a villager in Beifeng Village who was studying in Baoding middle school, had already joined the party organization. After being “expelled” from the school, he returned to the village. After a secret discussion with Wang Jiaji and Wang Lutai, who also had a firm belief in communism, he went straight to the CCP. The Provincial Party Committee submitted an application for the establishment of a party branch, which was quickly approved by the Provincial Party Committee. Thus, the first party organization in Anxin County, the Beifeng Special Party Branch of the Communist Party of China, was established. Liu Yiyu is the party branch secretary, the organizing committee member is Wang Jiaji, and the propaganda committee member is Wang Lutai.
“Why the Beifeng Village Party Branch is a special party branch? Because it is a Party branch directly led by the Provincial Party Committee, which can directly receive the spirit of the Provincial Party Committee.” said Bao Wei, an associate professor at the School of Marxism at Yanshan University. During this period, the revolutionary forces in Hebei’s urban and rural areas were still relatively weak, but the revolutionary enthusiasm of the student group was soaring, which became an important driving force for the early revolution. “Liu Yiyu was 26 years old at the time. After being’expelled’ by Yude Middle School, he returned to Beifeng Village and started to establish a party organization.” After the establishment of the special branch, it developed the organization and strengthened its strength with the spark of a prairie fire. Duancun, Santai and other villages established 76 party branches. “The Beifeng special party branch can be said to be the core of the party organization in the rural areas of Hebei.”
Yude Middle School was first built in 1905, and the old site is in the hospitality compound of Baoding Administrative Office. In 1906, Chen Youyun, the leader of the Hebei branch of the Tongmenghui, contacted 13 comrades to build Yude Middle School at the site of Negongci Primary School, making it the head office of the Hebei Tongmenghui and the leading center of Baoding’s revolutionary activities at that time. Revolutionaries of the older generation, such as Liu Shaoqi, Li Weihan, and Li Fuchun, once studied here.
During his time in school, Liu Yiyu often made remarks against current malpractices, “He has an active mind, good writing, good eloquence, coupled with an open-minded mind and informal personality, and he has become an active figure in the school. “The party branch memorial hall commentator said, “Liu Yiyu dared to fight the reactionaries, which caused great dissatisfaction with the enemy, and was expelled from Yude Middle School on the grounds of undermining school rules.”
Introduced by Wang Wenxue, Liu Yiyu was Baoding Yude The expulsion from the middle school was a play for the enemy. On the surface, he was expelled from the school, but in fact he accepted organizational arrangements and returned to Beifeng Village to secretly form a party team. “After returning to the village, Liu Yiyu taught at Beifeng Primary School. , Wearing a green blouse, at night, propagating the Party’s ideas in the home of the fellow villagers and selecting seedlings for the Party.”
Help poor farmers and lead people to cut their own wheat
Before liberation, In the north, the life of poor farmers is the most sad when the green and yellow are not available.
In the summer of 1928, the wheat in Beifeng Village was less than half ripe, because the land was in the landlord’s home, and most villagers were hungry. Liu Yiyu discussed with members of the branch and decided to organize poor farmers and hired peasants to grab the landlord’s wheat. “They secretly organized more than one hundred people in series. One night, party members and key elements took the lead and robbed the landlord’s 60 or 70 acres of wheat.”
“Liu Yiyu’s family is the landlord. To better mobilize and encourage the masses, Liu Yiyu first led them to snatch the wheat from their homes. That night, the masses transferred and hid the harvested wheat. On the next day, the landlords could not trace the whereabouts of the wheat.” Wang Wenxue said.
In the spring of 1929, the party organizations in various parts of Shunzhi quickly recovered and developed, pushing the workers’ and peasants’ movement to a climax. According to “Baoding City Chronicles”, Tianjin Yuyuan Yarn Factory launched three struggles within 10 days; more than 3,000 workers from Tangshan Railway South Plant organized and became the center of the struggle for Beijing-Fengzhou Railway; Kailuan Minmetals launched a wage increase struggle; Shijiazhuang , Beiping workers simultaneously launched a wage increase struggle and an anti-yellow trade union struggle.
In October 1929, the Shunzhi Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China developed to 4 city committees, 11 county committees, 11 temporary county committees, and 20 special branches. The total number of party members reached 1,513. In order to establish and develop party organizations in the three counties of Anxin, Gaoyang, and Renqiu, the Provincial Party Committee decided to establish a joint command center for the three counties and county committees based on the Beifeng Special Party Branch in Anxin County. In February 1930, Beifeng Village established the Central County Committee of the Communist Party of China, An, Gao, and Ren.
“At this time, the special party branch of Beifeng Village has mature ability to organize party members, trade unions, and peasant association backbones to launch resistance. Beifeng Village has always had local landlords colluding with neighboring village landlords. The villagers dared not say anything about trying to reduce the wages of long-term and part-time workers. But by 1930, the Beifeng Village Party Branch was already quite strong, but the landlords were no longer “light and raucous”.” Bao Wei introduced.
Wheat harvesting is the most important production activity in the farming society, but in Beifeng Village in the 1930s, it became an opportunity for landlords to exploit the labor force of farm hires. In June 1931, the special party branch of Beifeng Village decided to break the unspoken rule of landlords depressing the wages of farmers and workers, and organized long-term and day-time workers from various villages in series to meet to work out reasonable labor compensation, and then negotiate face-to-face with the landlords. It is clearly required to increase the wages of domestic helpers, otherwise they will refuse to apply in the labor market and go on strike. The landlords were unwilling to accept the demands of the peasants and workers. They secretly conspired with each other to win over the peasants who were not firm in their positions, and used coercive methods to put pressure on the peasants and workers in an attempt to dissolve the peasants’ unity, consensus and will to fight. Party members such as Liu Yiyu and Li Lanfu took tit-for-tat countermeasures, regularly organizing villagers to receive revolutionary education from the party, strictly preventing the landlord’s splitting activities, and insisting on leading long-term and short-term workers to launch an 18-day strike, which eventually forced the villagers to accept the party’s revolutionary education. The landlords increased the wages of all long-term and short-term workers by 20 to 30%.
The repeated success of organizing agricultural and industrial resistance has made Liu Yiyu and the special party branch of Beifeng Village famous in the area of Diannan. In 1931, Liu Yiyu and Chen Xilun developed Chen Baozhang, Han Yintang and others in Tongkou Town to join the Communist Party of China and established Tongkou Town Party Branch. Subsequently, Liu Yiyu and other party members successively established party branches in Anxin Rural Normal School, Nanfeng Village, and Hanbao Village. For a time, the revolutionary situation in Diannan villages was in full swing.
Introduced by Wang Wenxue, in 1932, in accordance with the unified deployment of the special committee of the Central Security Committee, the Anxin County Party Organization cooperated with the preparations for participating in the Gaoli Riot, and Liu Yiyu served as the stationmaster of the Third Transportation Center.
The Gaoli riot is an unprecedented large-scale armed struggle by the Communist Party in northern China that led the workers and peasants to resist the Kuomintang’s reactionary rule. It ultimately failed because the enemy was strong and we were weak. In five days of fierce fighting, 47 guerrillas died. Subsequently, the Kuomintang reactionary authorities began mass raids and massacres in Gaoyang County, Li County, Anxin County and other places.
Eight months after the failure of the Gaoli riot, Liu Yiyu, Wang Jiaji and other party members of the Beifeng Special Party Branch, after careful planning and careful arrangements, launched the struggle of the faculty and students of Beifeng Wan Elementary School to expel the principal Wei Mengjia , And achieved a complete victory.
Beifeng Wan’s small revolutionary fire lit up Jizhong
“Liu Yiyu, former secretary of the Beiping City Working Committee; Wang Hebin, former Mao Zedong health doctor and administrative secretary; Wang Wenbo, former national Deputy Director of the Supply and Marketing Cooperative; Liu Junli, a disciple of Zhang Daqian…” On the “Who’s Who” section in the exhibition hall, there are pictures of people on display. Wang Wenxue told reporters that these revolutionaries and cultural celebrities all graduated from the same The school-Beifeng Wan Primary School.
In “Anxin County Chronicles”, Beifeng Wanxiao was rebuilt in the ancient Baozhen Temple during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty. The reporter came to the site of the old site and found that now the old site is already the residence of the villagers. Only on the side of the street, there stands a school gate that was poured with cement in 2000, reminding people that it was once a school. Both sides of the school gate wrote: Peiyinghao builds China, and cultivating male talents becomes a great cause.
“Although the school was demolished a long time ago, the village felt the need to leave some marks and built this gate. Most of us over the age of 50 have basically gone to elementary school here.” Said a villager.
Wang Wenxue believes that it is precisely because of Beifeng Wan Primary School that Beifeng Village has a relatively good revolutionary foundation, which gave birth to the first special party branch in Anxin County. The advanced concepts of the middle school have moved over, making Beifeng Wanxiao the most advanced elementary school in Baiyangdian area. In many respects, it is ahead of the times.”
For Beifeng Wanxiao and the special party branch of Beifeng , 1934, is the year when the branches and leaves are scattered. “Anxin County Chronicles” stated that in 1934, Liu Yiyu left Beifeng Village and was assigned to work in the Hebei Provincial Party Committee of the Communist Party of China in Tianjin. At the end of the same year, Liu Yiyu was appointed as the secretary of the Peking City Working Committee of the Communist Party of China. In the spring of 1934, the Anxin County Committee of the Communist Party was born. Wang Jiaji served as the first secretary of the county party committee; in 1935, the Baodong Central County Committee was established, Zhang Jun was appointed as the secretary, and Liu Junda and Liu Yike, members of the Baodong Military Committee, established the underground assault force.
Liu Yiyu, who has been teaching at Beifeng Wanxiao for 7 years, deeply understands the propaganda role of culture and education. While presiding over the work of the Peking Party Committee, he personally served as the editor-in-chief of the municipal party committee’s publication “Beiping FireWire” and presided over the editing and printing of “Beiping” Publications such as The Truth, “Dongfang Jibai”, use the educational function of newspapers to enlighten the people.
The little Beifeng Wanxiao, walked out of many revolutionaries, like a kind of fire, lighting up the land of Jizhong.
Zhang Shuanglong, deputy director of the Public Service Bureau of Xiong’an New District and a local party history researcher, said: “As one of the red birthplaces of Xiong’an, Beifeng Village first established the first rural party branch in Xiong’an. , And then upgraded to the county-level Beifeng Special Branch, which was one of the earliest county-level party branches in Baiyangdian area, and then a central county committee was established, which in turn led the party organizations of Renqiu, Gaoyang, and Anxin. A series of actions embodied our party’s strong spirit of struggle and good mass foundation in the 1920s and 1930s. During that period, Beifeng Village could be said to be the “Xiaosu District” in central Hebei, which was used for the subsequent Anti-Japanese War and liberation. The war laid a good foundation.”
In late May 1939, due to betrayal by traitors, the Peking City Working Committee of the CCP was destroyed by the enemy and Liu Yiyu was arrested. Father-in-law Wang Peiyao and Anxin County education celebrity Wang Shuhan were released on bail after several setbacks.
More than 80 Japanese and puppet troops were killed in the Beifeng Defending Battle.
There was a fierce battle in Beifeng Village called the Defending Battle of Beifeng.
In the autumn of 1939, the 9th Division of the Jizhong Military Region of the Eighth Route Army decided to deploy the 10th and 12th companies of the 18th regiment to form the Beiting Detachment to fight against the Japanese invaders in Anxin and Rongcheng and resume development. Local work. In the evening of September 15th, the Beiting Detachment, which had just withdrawn from the fighting in Zhaili Village, came to Beifeng Village to rest. But as soon as the next day broke, it was surrounded by a large number of Japanese and puppet troops from the old city and from the same mouth.
“The enemy advanced to the edge of the village and set up a crane gun in a vain attempt to wipe out the Beiting detachment. The Eighth Route Army soldiers quickly controlled the commanding heights in the village, and the leader of the detachment gave an order. The gunman, the defense of Beifeng has started.” The instructor of the Party Branch Memorial Hall told the tourists the story of the defense of Beifeng in a loud voice.
At that time, the Beiting Detachment had only one light machine gun. In order to confuse the enemy, the machine gunner, under the guidance and help of Beifeng villager Liu Yiao, ran desperately and shot at every village street to stop the enemy and make the enemy. Can’t figure out how many machine guns there are. Sometimes the enemy rushed up, and the soldiers rushed to fight the bayonet, and the warrior without the bayonet used the guillotine and scythe to fight the enemy.
Beiting Detachment repelled the enemy’s attacks time and time again. With the strong support and active cooperation of the cadres and militias of Beifeng Village and the vast number of villagers, from sunrise to sunset, the Japanese and puppet troops suffered heavy casualties and never entered the village. On the night of the 16th, the Beiting Detachment led by the villagers took advantage of the darkness to withdraw from the battle, completing the safe transfer of military and civilians.
According to the Anxin County Chronicles, the Battle of Beifeng was a victory to reverse the anti-Japanese struggle in Anxin County. The Beiting Detachment killed more than 80 Japanese and puppet soldiers and 23 soldiers of the Eighth Route Army sacrificed.
“Wang Jiaji went to war on the first night of his wedding, and finally died on the battlefield; Liu Yike was surrounded by devils in Laohetou and killed him with a bayonet.” Wang Wenxue said, there are many people in Beifeng Village. Strong family-nation complex, Beifeng people previously believed that it was worth the sacrifice to defend their hometown. But more importantly, Communists have higher ideals, beliefs and pursuits. “True Communists have firm beliefs and are willing to sacrifice everything they own, including their lives, for their beliefs. Communism belief has always been the spiritual driving force for the Chinese Communist Party to forge ahead.” Huang Yunming, the former dean of the School of Marxism at Hebei University, commented on the Beifeng Defence War. .
Leading young people to establish the Anti-Japanese Self-Defense Force
“Admiral Lu Zhengcao will be our son-in-law of Beifeng. After he married Liu Yiyu’s sister Liu Sha, he became half of Jizhong. According to Wang Wenxue, in April 1941, Lv Zhengcao led the working group and the Hui detachment theater group to go north through the county, but was blocked by the enemy and was forced to move to Guo Likou. After research, he took the Yanling team boat to stay overnight in Beifeng Village.
The armed forces of Beifeng Village were incorporated into the regular army since 1938. At that time, Meng Qingshan was commissioned by the central government to organize the masses in Hebei to carry out guerrilla warfare, and he served as the commander of the Hebei guerrilla army. The keen Meng Qingshan came to Beifeng Village on the south bank of Baiyangdian and decided to use Beifeng Village as a pilot for launching a revolution in Hebei province. He secretly opened training courses and gathered party members, league members, and members of the Anti-Japanese National Salvation Council from Beifeng Village to class at night. He often told the story of the Red Army’s revolutionary activities in the Soviet area and the Long March. At the beginning, there were only a dozen people who listened to the lecture, and later it was expanded to forty or fifty people.
Bao Wei told reporters that in early 1936, Liu Shaoqi came to work in the Northern Bureau. He paid great attention to united front work and strengthened cooperation with local power factions. Conditions established early. After the “July 7 Incident”, Liu Yiyu’s slogan of “Some people give people, guns give guns, money gives money” coincides with Liu Shaoqi’s “active united front” thinking.
Liu Yiyu gathered the guns and artillery in the hands of the landlords, the ordnance left by the Kuomintang and the hand grenades and knives scattered among the people, and led the young people in the areas of Nan Feng, Bei Feng and Baizhuang to establish a Support the Anti-Japanese Self-Defense Forces. “Why does Lu Zhengcao like Zhongbei Fengcun? It is because Beifeng Village has a good foundation, not only has the party’s ideological propaganda base like Beifeng Wanxiao, but also young people with high ideological level.” Wang Wenxue said.
In less than a year, this Anti-Japanese Self-Defense Force has grown into more than 900 people, and subsequently incorporated into the People’s Self-Defense Army led by Lu Zhengcao. In accordance with the instructions of Hou Yutian, the leader of the special committee of the Communist Party of China, in October 1937, party members such as Yan Jun, Liu Yiyu, Jia Guirong formed Xin’an Xiaoba Road. In May 1938, the People’s Self-Defense Army and the Hebei Guerrilla Army led by Meng Qingshan were organized into the third column of the Eighth Route Army. Among them, the Xin’an Xiaoba Road by Liu Yiyu and others was reorganized into the 30th Brigade. “The Third Column of the Eighth Route Army was one of the main forces of the Eighth Route Army in the anti-Japanese war in the central area of Hebei Province. It fought many famous battles such as the Battle of the Green Shade.” Bao Wei said.
As the anti-Japanese base area in the Jizhong Plain, Beifeng Village once had deep trenches and tunnels extending from north to south, but today’s Beifeng Village is flat and the streets are clean. Traces of being ravaged by war. Only the old photos in the memorial hall of the village branch and the handwritings left by the ancestors silently tell the heroic stories that happened in this land.
Around the village, there are many tower cranes, and the slogan “Millennium plan, national event” can be seen vividly on this piece of land that has been established as a new national area. “Beifeng Village is developing rapidly now. The previous high-polluting and high-energy-consuming factories are gone, but people in the village have more job opportunities, and now the average family income has increased. Beifeng Village has a glorious past and red memories. In the new era, we are full of hope for the future!” said the village party secretary Wang Wenxue.
A10-A11 edition writing/Beijing News reporter Li Ao and intern Zhao Lixin
A10-A11 edition photography/Beijing News reporter Wang Wei