Build a high-quality social security system to provide institutional guarantees for common prosperityBy yqqlm yqqlm
Building a high-quality social security system to provide institutional guarantees for common prosperity
Xietang Street, Suzhou Industrial Park, Jiangsu Province Regional Elderly Service Center. Published by Xinhua News Agency
[Learn and implement Xi Jinping’s thoughts on socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era]
General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that social security is to ensure and improve people’s livelihood, maintain social equity, and enhance people’s well-being The basic system guarantee is an important system arrangement for promoting economic and social development and realizing that the broad masses of the people can share the fruits of reform and development. It is a major issue in the governance of the country. Building a high-quality social security system with Chinese characteristics, continuously improving the well-being of the people, and ultimately achieving common prosperity is the essential requirement of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and the common expectations of the people, and it is a concrete manifestation of the Chinese Communist Party’s pursuit of happiness for the people. Looking back at the development of China’s modern social security system, it can be found that as a triumphant achievement of the working people, it sprouted with the birth of the Communist Party of China. After the Chinese Communist Party’s practical attempts in the actual control area during the Agrarian Revolution, Anti-Japanese War and Liberation War, It was established quickly after the founding of New China, and after the reform and opening up of the system and the comprehensive development since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the world’s largest social security system was finally built, and it is adapting to the modernization requirements of the country and the growing beauty of the people. Life needs and has entered a new stage of high-quality development.
Outstanding achievements in the development of social security in China
Since its birth in 1921, the party has placed the issue of social security for working people in a very important position. The “Labor Law of the Chinese Soviet Republic” passed in 1931 made corresponding provisions for workers’ welfare. During the Anti-Japanese War, the leadership of the Communist Party of China formulated the “Regulations on Labor Protection in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region (Draft)” and a series of related decrees. It not only covers work-related injury insurance and maternity insurance for women workers, but also provides protection for elderly, sick, unemployed, and other difficulties in life. The members of society give certain material help. During the War of Liberation, the Communist Party of China established a series of security systems such as labor insurance in the liberated areas, and accumulated useful experience for the establishment of a social security system after the founding of New China.
New China was founded in 1949. In the face of tens of millions of victims and millions of unemployed workers, the new people’s regime quickly launched disaster relief across the country under conditions of poverty and poverty. The climax freed the endangered victims and unemployed workers from the predicament of survival. In 1950, a comprehensive pension and preferential treatment guarantee system was established. In 1951, the Central People’s Government promulgated and implemented labor insurance regulations, which became an important symbol of the establishment of a social security system in New China. Since then, a series of systems such as public medical care, urban housing benefits, disaster relief, rural five guarantees, cooperative medical care, free education, and related welfare facilities have been established. These systems not only provide comprehensive protection for urban residents, but also provide primary protection for rural residents.
After the reform and opening up, social security has entered a period of comprehensive and profound system reform. After more than 20 years of continuous exploration, we have realized the overall transformation from a “state-unit (collective) security system” compatible with the planned economy to a “state-social security system” that meets the requirements of the socialist market economy and social development and progress. It effectively resolves the people’s livelihood crisis that may arise in the process of economic reform and social transformation, and has always maintained social stability and the sustained and rapid development of the national economy. Especially since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the party and the government have set the goal of comprehensively building a social security system covering urban and rural residents, focusing on enhancing fairness, adapting to mobility, and ensuring sustainability, and through strengthening the top-level design and rationalizing the management system , Strive to make up for shortcomings, comprehensively promote a series of major measures such as system optimization, so that the social security system becomes the basic way and institutional guarantee for all people to share the fruits of national development.
From the above review, it can be found that the Communist Party of China has always attached importance to social security. What China’s social security has experienced is from scratch, from covering a few people to covering the whole people, from a low level of primary Guarantee the development process of high-quality social security. China’s social security system construction and development achievements are mainly manifested in the following aspects:
First, a new type of social security system that is compatible with the socialist market economy and social development has been established. This system consists of government-led statutory guarantees and market or social-led supplementary guarantees. The former includes various social insurance, social assistance, social welfare and military security projects. Pension insurance, medical security, and minimum living security are key projects. ; The latter includes supplementary insurance, charity, etc. The basic completion of this system indicates that the social security system has become an important institutional guarantee for the long-term stability of the country and the well-being of the people for generations.
Secondly, social security benefits the whole people and has become the basic way for all people to share the fruits of national development. The basic pension insurance has achieved full coverage of the system. In 2020, the number of insured persons will reach 999 million, and about 300 million people will receive basic pensions on time and in full. The goal of universal medical insurance has been basically achieved. The number of people insured by basic medical insurance is 1.36 billion. The public’s worries about illness and medical care continue to be greatly reduced; a comprehensive social assistance system with a minimum living guarantee, assistance and support for the extremely poor, special assistance, and temporary assistance as the main content has been established; the elderly care services have begun to extend to the community and the elderly at home, and the welfare of children has been extended from the orphans. Disabled children are spreading to children in need. The poor and severely disabled have subsidies for living and nursing; soldiers and military martyrs have more comprehensive and reliable protection. It can be seen that social security has benefited all people to varying degrees. This means that more than 1.4 billion Chinese people, who account for nearly 20% of the world’s total population, are covered by the modern social security system. This is a miracle in the history of human development.
The third is that the level of social security continues to improve, and the well-being of the people has been greatly improved. Since 2005, the basic pension level of corporate retirees has been increased for 17 consecutive years. By 2020, the monthly per capita pensions of corporate retirees and urban and rural elderly residents will reach around 2,900 yuan and 170 yuan respectively; the proportion of hospitalization reimbursements for employees and residents within the scope of the medical insurance policy are respectively Reach 80% and 70%; the urban and rural subsistence allowance standard has reached 665 yuan per person per month and 5842 per person per year respectively; the “two subsidies” for the disabled and the basic living security standards for orphans have been continuously improved. The continuous improvement of the level of social security has made important contributions to building a well-off society in an all-round way, and the people’s sense of gain, happiness, and security have been significantly enhanced.
Fourth, the function of social security in regulating economic development has been effectively brought into play. For example, through the strong promotion of the “two guarantees and three guarantee lines” in 1998, favorable conditions were created for responding to the Southeast Asian financial turmoil and smoothly promoting economic reforms at the turn of the century; when the international financial crisis was encountered in 2008, the rapid implementation of the “five guarantees” The “reduction of four subsidies and three subsidies” policy has directly reduced the burden on enterprises. In 2009, the implementation of the universal medical insurance plan, the launch of the pilot endowment insurance for farmers, and the construction of large-scale affordable housing have rapidly boosted residents’ consumption and helped China take the lead in getting out of the trough and realizing the economy. The rapid growth has made a direct contribution. Facing the severe impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic in 2020, the state will promptly promulgate a policy to reduce or exempt corporate social insurance premiums to ensure that patients will not be affected by cost issues, and hospitals will not be affected by the payment policy. The new medical insurance policy will be implemented in a timely manner. Raising aid standards and increasing temporary aid and related services have provided strong support for winning the battle against epidemic prevention and control and promoting economic and social recovery and development.
Fifth, the management system has been straightened out and a service network covering urban and rural areas has been established. On the one hand, in 2018, the social security management system was rebuilt through institutional reforms, which removed the long-term institutional obstacles restricting social security reform and system construction, and realized the optimization of the management system, thereby providing a powerful organization for the smooth advancement of the social security system. Guaranteed. On the other hand, focusing on recording life, guaranteeing life, and serving life, we have continuously strengthened service capacity building, and established a five-level social security service network from the central government to provinces, cities, counties, towns (streets), and social security information construction has been significantly strengthened , The service model continues to innovate, providing convenient services for the people to participate in and enjoy the corresponding guarantees in accordance with the law.
Valuable experience in the development of China’s social security
The strong leadership of the Communist Party of China is the fundamental guarantee for the rapid development of China’s social security. From the practice of social security in the revolutionary base areas and liberated areas, to the rapid establishment of the “State-unit (collective) security system” after the founding of New China to benefit hundreds of millions of people, to the reform and opening up of the system to make social security benefit all people. It is not the result of the Chinese Communist Party consistently fulfilling its original mission. It is precisely because of the strong leadership of the Chinese Communist Party that the development of social security has been transformed into the country’s firm will and can be effectively and orderly promoted.
Based on national conditions is the key to the steady development of China’s social security. A large population, large urban-rural gap, and uneven regional development are China’s basic national conditions. Since the reform and opening up, my country has persisted in taking the road of social security with Chinese characteristics. In terms of the selection of security projects, the priority construction projects are pension, medical care, and subsistence allowances, and the focus is on the establishment of inclusive basic pension insurance, basic medical insurance and a social assistance system centered on subsistence allowances, which is fully in line with the reality of the stage of development. . In terms of system design, based on the differences between employees and ordinary residents, two social insurance system platforms of “employees + residents” have been established, and the goal of full coverage of employees has been achieved through large-scale public investment. In terms of the method of advancement, we insisted on gradual reforms, piloted first and then rolled out, which has better balanced the relationship between reform, development and stability, and avoided the social risks and crises that are easily triggered when some countries promote social security reforms.
Correctly handling the relationship between economic development and social security is an important condition for achieving coordinated economic and social development. Social security needs financial support. Without economic development, it is impossible to have the material basis for sustainable development of social security, and it is difficult to achieve sustained economic development without paying attention to social security. It is precisely because of the sustained development of the national economy and the increasingly strong national financial resources that the country can use the ever-increasing public investment to provide universal basic pensions for urban and rural residents, and provide subsidies for low-income people in difficulty to participate in pension insurance, and quickly realize the full pension insurance system. Coverage; in order to provide financial subsidies of more than 2/3 of the financing scale for urban and rural residents’ medical insurance, so that the goal of universal medical insurance can quickly become a reality. Facts have proved that the rapid development of social security has also made a direct contribution to coping with the international economic crisis and boosting economic growth. Compared with the situation in which some countries are experiencing economic crises that make social security unsustainable and some developed countries’ deflation of welfare has not brought about economic development, the coordinated development of China’s social security and national economy is undoubtedly a very successful model.
Adhere to the principle of doing our best and doing our best is an important guarantee for the sustainable development of the social security system. On the one hand, insist on doing your best. Continuously increase the protection and improvement of people’s livelihood in the development, and give priority to protecting people’s livelihood even in the face of economic difficulties. Through continuous increase of public investment, the social security of all people will be better and better every year. On the other hand, stick to what you can. For example, although the basic pension has been increased for 17 consecutive years, it has tended to increase slightly in recent years and has begun to move towards the establishment of a normal adjustment mechanism; urban and rural residents’ medical insurance subsidies have continued to increase slightly every year; other welfare benefits have also been improved every year, the focus is Make up for shortcomings. It is precisely because of the adherence to the principle of doing our best and doing our best to achieve the rational development of the social security system.
Stepping steadily towards a high-quality social security system with Chinese characteristics
With the arrival of the “14th Five-Year Plan”, China has embarked on a new journey of building a modern socialist country in an all-round way, and solidly promoting common prosperity As an important goal of national development, social security, as the main mechanism for all people to share the fruits of national development, will assume a more important mission and responsibility. Faced with the imbalance and inadequacy of development in the field of social security, it is necessary to comprehensively deepen reforms to make it more mature.
First, a high-quality social security system with Chinese characteristics is the organizational goal. Adhere to the concept of shared development and the direction of common prosperity, adhere to the orientation of co-construction, sharing, mutual assistance and fairness, adhere to overall planning and rational development, adhere to system integration and efficient coordination, achieve fair and unified institutional arrangements, ensure a complete system structure, and cover Fully guaranteed, clear and reasonable matching of rights and responsibilities, insured and sustainable financing mechanism, moderate and steady improvement of treatment, standardized and convenient handling services, and a high-quality social security system with Chinese characteristics to provide strong and reliable institutional guarantees for steadily moving toward common prosperity.
The second is to seize the important window period of the “14th Five-Year Plan” and continuously optimize the current system. Including measures such as accelerating the realization of national overall planning of basic pension insurance, rational adjustment of relevant parameters and individual rights and responsibilities, and promoting the maturity of the pension insurance system; gradually equalizing financing responsibilities, establishing remuneration lists, improving overall planning levels, adjusting residents’ insurance policies, and improving Scientific cost control measures, etc., to achieve the optimization of the medical insurance system; by expanding the scope of assistance, innovating assistance mechanisms, making up for the shortcomings of assistance services, giving positive functions to social assistance, establishing effective monitoring and active discovery mechanisms, and promoting the full play of social assistance functions; By accelerating the establishment of basic old-age services and child welfare systems, timely make up for social welfare shortcomings; by improving the policy support system, solidly promote the construction of a multi-level social security system to meet the diverse and personalized social security needs of different groups of people.
The third is to increase the redistribution of social security and steadily increase the fair share of social security. Efforts will be made to promote social insurance, social assistance and social assistance, and social welfare and related services. By adjusting the structure of fiscal expenditures, strengthening personal responsibilities, ensuring the preservation and appreciation of funds, enriching the social security strategic reserve fund, and fully mobilizing the enthusiasm of all parties to share responsibilities, continue to strengthen the material foundation of social security, and at the same time steadily narrow the gap between different groups to promote equity Significantly enhanced sex. The full play of the redistribution function of social security is an important manifestation of the more obvious substantive progress of common prosperity.
Fourth is to accelerate the improvement of the level of legalization of social security. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that it is necessary to strengthen social security work from the aspects of legislation, law enforcement, justice, and compliance, and promote the healthy development of social security undertakings on the track of the rule of law. my country’s social security system urgently needs to accelerate legislation to lead. The most urgent task is to step up the formulation of new laws such as the Social Assistance Law and the Medical Security Law, and promptly revise the Social Insurance Law, Charity Law and other laws as well as work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and other regulations, so as to provide effective legal protection for the development of the social security system.
(Author: Zheng Gongcheng, President of the Chinese Society of Social Security)