The temperature in Beijing has dropped slightly, the humidity has increased and the body feels sultry
Beijing experienced high temperatures for two consecutive days. The highest temperature at the Southern Suburb Observatory on the 21st was 35.9℃; the blue warning for high temperature was lifted.
From now on, the temperature will drop slightly and the humidity will increase. =’http://www.chinanews.com/cr/2021/0622/2559866133.jpg’ />
Yesterday, in the Temple of Heaven Park, tourists used paper fans to block the scorching sun on the Danbi Bridge. Photo by Wang Fei, reporter from Beijing News
Yesterday, On Dongsixi Street, citizens wear hats, glasses, and face masks to protect themselves from the sun. Photo by Beijing News reporter Wang Guibin
In the past two days, the heat wave swept the city of Beijing, and the citizens were so hot. At 9:48 on June 21, Beijing time, the live temperature of all national weather stations in Beijing urban area rose to 30°C. According to reports, on the 20th, the highest temperature in the Southern Suburb Observatory reached 37.2℃, the highest since this year. On the 21st, the highest temperature in the Southern Suburb Observatory was 35.9℃, which appeared at 13:45.
At around 18:00 on the 21st, the temperature in most parts of Beijing has fallen below 35°C, and the Municipal Meteorological Observatory lifted the blue high temperature warning signal at 18:40. Why was the high temperature encountered in these two days? Is June this year hotter than previous years? How does the Southern Suburb Observatory measure the temperature? In the hot weather, what rights and interests should workers obtain? With these questions in mind, reporters from the Beijing News conducted field visits and interviewed relevant experts.
Beijing News At 9:48 on June 21, the live temperature of all national weather stations in Beijing urban area rose to 30°C. On the 22nd, the temperature dropped, but the humidity increased, and the body felt sultry.
At 8 o’clock on the 21st, although the temperature in most parts of the city is not as high as 8 o’clock on the 20th, the humidity has risen, the relative humidity has risen from about 25% to 40%, and the sultry feeling increases around noon.
From the 19th to the 21st, the Beijing area was under heating control, the weather was fine, the air humidity was low, the light conditions were good, and the disturbance of the north wind increased the turbulent heat exchange near the ground layer, so high temperatures occurred for three consecutive days. the weather. Among them, the highest temperature in the Southern Suburb Observatory on the 20th reached 37.2℃, the highest since this year. On the 21st, the highest temperature at the Southern Suburb Observatory was 35.9℃, which appeared at 13:45.
At around 18:00 on the 21st, the temperature in most parts of Beijing has fallen below 35°C, and the Municipal Meteorological Observatory lifted the blue high temperature warning signal at 18:40.
From a nationwide perspective, on the 21st, high temperatures above 35°C occurred in parts of central and southern Hebei, central and northern Shandong, central and northern Henan, southern Jiangnan, and most of southern China. In southern Hebei and western Guangxi, The highest local temperature reaches 38℃～40℃.
Beijing Meteorological Observatory predicts that on the 22nd, the cloud cover in Beijing’s sky will increase, the light conditions will deteriorate, and the temperature will drop. The maximum daytime temperature in the next two days will be 32℃ to 33℃. However, the humidity has increased and the body feels more stuffy.
In addition, there were showers on the night of the 22nd, and the rainfall was not large. There was a thunderstorm from the evening to the night of the 24th, and the rainfall could reach the level of light to moderate rainfall.
Experts suggest that the next two days will be sweltering and hot, try to avoid outdoor activities around noon, and pay attention to heatstroke prevention and frequent water supply; the rainfall on the 24th is more obvious, the public travel with rain gear, and pay attention to traffic safety.
How are the weather data measured?
On the afternoon of the 21st, the reporter visited the Beijing Observatory under the high temperature to reveal how these meteorological data closely related to our lives were obtained.
The Southern Suburb Observatory, the Beijing Observatory, is the only meteorological observatory in the Beijing area that participates in the global regular weather data exchange. The observation data here represents the meteorological data of the Beijing area.
At 15:00 on the 21st, the reporter came to the Southern Suburb Observatory. Meng Lei, Chief of the Observation and Experiment Section, introduced that the highest temperature at the Southern Suburb Observatory had exceeded 35 degrees Celsius at that time. It is expected that the cloud cover in the sky will gradually increase and the maximum temperature will decrease in the next three days.
As for whether there will be rainfall, Meng Lei said that although there will be rain on the 21st and 24th, there are also uncertainties, because the three-day forecast may not be so accurate, and the rain may be advanced or delayed. Rear. Generally in this case, a correction will be made to the weather as it approaches.
Is June this year hotter than previous years?
Is June this year hotter than previous years? By querying the system, Meng Lei introduced that before June 20 last year, the highest temperature in Beijing was 37.3 degrees Celsius, which occurred on June 8. The highest temperature this year occurred on June 20, reaching 37.2 degrees Celsius. “2018 was very hot, and the temperature reached 39 degrees Celsius on June 5, 2018.” Meng Lei said.
Meng Lei explained that the summer time is different every year, and the heat is different. Sometimes the summer solstice solar term may just catch up with the cold air, high temperature does not appear so early, there will be a delay.
Why is the temperature sensor measured in a louver box?
There is a 25m×35m site in the Southern Suburb Observatory. The data observed by all the instruments in it are summarized into an observation system, and the data of all the instruments can be viewed in the system.
The routine ground observation data that the staff of the Southern Suburb Observatory observe daily include temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind direction, wind speed, water volume, visibility, as well as identification of some weather phenomena, ground temperature and so on.
The temperature sensor and humidity sensor are both in a louvered box.
“Because of the daily temperature and humidity observation, it is necessary to avoid the influence of solar radiation and the influence of ground reflected radiation. At the same time, the louver box can block wind, frost, rain and snow, and avoid affecting the sensor observation.” Meng Lei Said that the sensors inside are observed in real time, and data will be transmitted back to the system every minute. Among them, the platinum resistance temperature sensor mainly measures temperature, and the white temperature and humidity sensor can observe both temperature and humidity.
According to his memories, the instruments in the louver box were more complicated for manual observations, because mercury thermometers were used for manual observations. The real-time temperature is easy to obtain, but the humidity must be measured through the wet bulb temperature. The difference is calculated, so two mercury thermometers will be placed.
Most provinces began to issue “high temperature allowances” this month
Recently, many places across the country, including Beijing, are experiencing the largest range of high temperature weather this year. For workers who work outdoors and in high temperature environments, according to the “Management Measures for Heatstroke Prevention and Cooling Measures” formulated by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security and other four departments, they should all enjoy “high temperature allowance”, and the high temperature allowance should be included in the total wages. According to the reporter’s analysis, most provinces have been distributing this allowance since June.
What is the high temperature allowance and who can receive it?
In June 2012, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security and other four departments formulated the “Administrative Measures for Heatstroke Prevention and Cooling Measures”, which stipulates that workers who engage in high-temperature operations are entitled to job allowances in accordance with the law. If the employer arranges for workers to engage in outdoor operations in hot weather above 35°C and cannot take effective measures to reduce the temperature of the workplace to below 33°C, it shall pay the workers a high temperature allowance and include it in the total wages.
According to this method, as long as the employer arranges high-temperature operations, employees of enterprises, institutions, and individual economic organizations can enjoy high-temperature allowances in accordance with the law. The Measures stipulate that the trade union organization has the right to propose to the employer, and the employer shall make corrections in a timely manner. If it refuses to make corrections, it shall be submitted to the relevant department for handling in accordance with the law, and the results shall be supervised.
In June 2019, the National Federation of Trade Unions issued a notice to urge employers to implement various safeguards, improve production processes and operating procedures, and adopt good heat insulation, ventilation, and cooling measures to provide employees with the necessary Personal protective equipment; reasonable arrangement or adjustment of working hours, taking shifts and shifts, etc., to appropriately increase the rest time of employees in high-temperature working environments.
What standard is the high temperature allowance and how is it paid?
Of the 28 provinces that disclose the standard of high temperature allowances, the allowances are mostly paid on a monthly basis. For example, according to Beijing regulations, no less than 180 yuan per person per month for outdoor outdoor operations; at 33°C (including 33°C) The above indoor workplace operations shall not be less than 120 yuan per person per month.
In the provinces with monthly allowances, the highest standard is 300 yuan/month, such as Shanghai, Jiangsu, Guangdong and other places. In some provinces, the high temperature allowance is divided into indoor and outdoor situations. For example, workers engaged in outdoor operations and high temperature operations in Jiangxi are not less than 300 yuan per person per month, and indoor non-high temperature operations are not less than 200 yuan per person per month; Zhejiang’s Outdoor workers are 300 yuan per month, and indoor workers are 200 yuan per month.
In some provinces, high temperature allowances are calculated on a daily basis. For example, Shaanxi is 25 yuan/day, Hubei is 12 yuan/day, and Henan, Hainan, and Yunnan are all 10 yuan/day. Sichuan 10 yuan -18 yuan / day.
Among the 28 provinces, only Hebei provides high-temperature allowances on an hourly basis. Among them, outdoor work is 2 yuan/hour, and indoor high-temperature workers are 1.5 yuan/hour.
According to the differences in standards in various regions, Su Hainan, a special researcher of the Chinese Society of Labor, said that the standards for distribution are mainly determined by considering local social and economic development conditions, wage levels, price levels and other factors.
From the point of view of the time when the high temperature allowance is issued, there are also differences in different regions due to differences in climatic conditions, but most of them are 3-4 months. For example, the distribution period for Beijing and Shanxi is 3 months from June to August, and for Hubei, Shandong, Gansu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and other places, it is from June to September for 4 months. The distribution period in Hainan Province is as long as 7 months, from April to October.
Because of the long span between the north and the south and the large temperature difference in Hebei Province, high temperature allowances are implemented for different durations. Among them, cities, districts, counties (cities) where the winter heating period standard does not exceed 4 months (including 4 months) shall be implemented from May 21 to August 31 each year; the winter heating period standard exceeds 4 months (not including (Including 4 months) cities, districts, counties (cities), each year from June 11 to August 20.
The heatstroke prevention and cooling fee is the high temperature allowance?
According to the regulations of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, all localities shall issue high-temperature allowances in accordance with regulations, and heatstroke prevention and cooling beverages and essential medicines are not allowed to be used as high-temperature allowances. However, the reporter sorted out the implementation methods of high temperature allowances in various places. Some referred to high temperature allowances as heatstroke prevention and cooling fees, while others made it clear that the two cannot be replaced and must be paid at the same time. Heatstroke prevention and cooling beverage.
According to the relevant regulations of my country’s “Administrative Measures for Heatstroke Prevention and Cooling Measures”, in addition to high temperature allowances, employers should provide workers who work in hot weather and hot weather with adequate and hygienic conditions. Standard heatstroke prevention and cooling beverages and necessary medicines. Don’t give money and goods instead of providing heatstroke prevention and cooling beverages. Heatstroke prevention and cooling beverages shall not be used as a high temperature allowance.
Among the 28 provinces that have disclosed the implementation of high temperature allowances, some call them high temperature allowances, some are heatstroke prevention and cooling fees, and some provinces clearly distinguish between high temperature allowances and heatstroke prevention and cooling fees. For example, Shaanxi Province stipulates that the maximum heatstroke prevention and cooling fee is 15 yuan per person per day, and the high temperature allowance is 25 yuan per person per day.
In addition, Guangxi, Guizhou and other places clearly stated that high temperature allowances and heatstroke prevention and cooling fees cannot be reissued, while Tianjin stipulates that high temperature allowances should be issued to workers on the basis of the payment of heatstroke prevention and cooling fees.
In this regard, Su Hainan said that doing a good job of preventing heatstroke and cooling workers cannot be solved entirely by money. In addition to high temperature allowances and heatstroke prevention and cooling fees, companies should also, in accordance with my country’s relevant regulations, shorten the duration of workers’ high-temperature work or provide heat-relieving beverages, and on the other hand install fans, air conditioners and other cooling devices indoors.
How to avoid the high temperature allowance is just “cool on paper”?
For the high temperature allowance, some people also said that “I have only heard it, but have never seen it.” Various localities have already issued standards for high temperature allowances. How to prevent high temperature allowances from being “cool on paper” in the payment and implementation of allowances?
“The issuance of high temperature allowances is essentially the autonomous behavior of the employer, which should be resolved by the enterprise itself.” Su Hainan believes that the current government has to issue relevant regulations because of the current stage. The labor-management relationship is the requirement of enterprises to protect the health of workers.
For the distribution of high temperature allowances, Su Hainan said that the government, enterprises and employees should work together to safeguard the rights and interests of workers under high temperature. “The government promotes the implementation of high temperature allowances through labor inspections and collective consultations by enterprise trade unions. Workers can also complain to the labor department to protect their rights.”
Beijing’s Human Resources and Social Security Department has enforced the implementation of high temperature allowances in recent years. . In recent years, Beijing has carried out special law enforcement inspections from July to August, including whether the company complies with high temperature allowance regulations.
Beijing Municipal Bureau of Human Resources and Social Security has stated that open-air operations such as traffic patrols, couriers, construction workers, sanitation workers, outdoor line inspection workers; indoor operations such as steelmaking workers, mechanical casting workers, etc. can receive high temperature allowance. Employees who have not received the high temperature allowance can report and complain to the labor supervision department, or directly call the human and social security reporting hotline 12333 to make a complaint.
Beijing News reporter Li Yukun Wu Wei and intern Wang Jingxi