World History Events (29) American”Apollo” Moon Landing Project
In the vast universe, the moon is one of the closest celestial bodies to the earth and most closely related to humans. Since the birth of mankind, many descriptions and imaginations of the moon have been circulating.”Looking at the moon in the nine heavens” is a dream shared by different ethnic groups in different regions in different historical periods. Dreams are sometimes absurd, because they seem so far away from us; but it is absolutely sad that human beings have no dreams. The pace of history tells us that as long as we have dreams and put them into action, dreams are only one step away from people. July 20, 1969 will be recorded forever in the annals of history. On this day, at 4:12:42 PM Eastern Time, American astronauts took the”Apollo” 11 universeThe”Eagle” of the spacecraftLunar Module /span>, after 75 hours of flight, landing on the moon safely, the dream of mankind to land on the moon for thousands of years has become a reality at this moment.
Moon landing The implementation of the project and the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II Fierce competition is directly related. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviet Union repeatedly took the lead in the space race. On October 4, 1957, the former Soviet Union took the lead in launching artificial satellite into the sky, causing a crisis of confidence Forest fires that were blown by a squally wind quickly swept across the United States. Some people even think that the United States is losing a battle more important than Pearl Harbor. On April 12, 1961, the Soviet cosmonaut Gagarin completed the first-ever flight around the moon, which made the United States more embarrassed. Dr. Gillian, a recently retired presidential scientific adviser, complained, “We can no longer be second, but we should not compete with the Soviet Union for prestige. We should make our own space program and avoid being made by the Soviets, and we are just copying it.”The then U.S. President Kennedy said angrily:”This is after the launch of the Soviet satellite. Another shame for the American nation.”
On May 25, 1961, the U.S. Congress successfully passed Kennedy’s plan to send humans to the moon and return safely. This moon landing program is called the”Apollo” program. Apollo is the sun god in ancient Greek deification legends, and the moon god is twin sisters, so the plan implies sister meeting. Initially, the technical staff of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) once proposed two schemes, namely the direct landing method and the earth Track butt method. But in the end it was decided to adopt the lunar orbit rendezvous plan proposed by Hobert of Langley Laboratory. According to this plan, it is necessary to launch a main spacecraft and a smaller transport module, enter the lunar orbit after docking in the earth orbit, then descend to the moon, and return to the lunar orbit to dock with the main spacecraft after completing the mission, and finally return to the earth.
Sending humans to the moon is an unprecedented scientific experiment. A little carelessness will cause immeasurable and irreversible serious consequences. Therefore, after the successful completion of the”Prowler” program and the”Surveyor” program, NASA methodically began the commissioning of the”Apollo” spacecraft. From 1966 to 1968, the United States conducted six unmanned flight experiments to verify the performance of the spacecraft’s command module, service module, and lunar module in low-Earth orbit. The”Apollo” spacecraft No. 7, 8, and 9 launched in 1968-1969 began to conduct manned flight experiments. Among them, the”Apollo 10″ spacecraft launched on May 18, 1969 conducted a full moon landing exercise. It orbited the moon 31 times. Two astronauts even descended to the distance by using the lunar module.The surface of the moon is only 15. 2 kilometers high. After a long period of patient and careful debugging and drills, the”Apollo” spacecraft landing on the moon was officially put on the agenda.
On July 16, 1969, the sky over the Kennedy Space Center in the United States was high and cloudy. The”Saturn” 5 rocket and the”Apollo” 11 spacecraft stand proudly on the launch pad, and the staff of the control center are doing the final debugging and inspection. Eight hours and 15 minutes before the launch, the staff began to fill the rocket with fuel; two hours before the launch, three astronauts-Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins walked into the spacecraft with smiles after bidding farewell to their colleagues, relatives and friends. With the commander’s order, the rocket launch entered the countdown,”10, 9, … ignited!” With a loud noise like the sky and the earth, a red flame was ejected from the tail of the rocket, Saturn 5 carries”Apollo 11” like an arrow from the string, whizzing straight into the cloud. After 11 minutes and 40 seconds, the spacecraft entered the standby orbit and began her long journey.
The standby orbit is a circular orbit around the earth, where various inspections will be performed on the spacecraft to decide whether to proceed or return to the earth. After”Apollo” was in the standby orbit for a week and a half, the ground control center issued an instruction:”Everything is normal, head to the moon!” Then, the spacecraft entered the orbit to the moon. During this orbit, the astronauts will adjust the positions of the cabins, separate the mother cabin and the lunar module, then turn 180 degrees to dock with the lunar module, and then go straight to the moon. After 75 hours, 49 minutes and 48 seconds of the spacecraft’s launch, the spacecraft’s service compartment rocket decelerated by a reverse fire spurt and entered an orbit around the moon. On the 11th lap of the moon, Commander Armstrong and Aldrin entered the””Eagle” lunar module. At 2:40 on July 21, after the control center issued an order, Collins launched the maneuvering rocket in the command module to separate the command module from the lunar module. The young”Eagle” began to spread its wings and fly independently, and the command module continued to fly around the moon. . At 3:8 pm, the moon landing began. At an altitude of 50,000feet from the surface of the moon, the lunar module fires in reverse to slow down the landing speed . When it was only 300 feet above the moon’s surface, the computer’s red light suddenly turned on. Because of the heavy burden, the computer”struck”. Armstrong calmly through manual operation, at 5:17:40 in the morning, it was more than 120 feet away from the meteor crater Landing safely on the flat ground.
Astronauts saw a close-up view of the surface of the moon for the first time. They looked out from the window of the lunar module, but the color there was gray. After”Apollo” flew over the landing site, Armstrong reported:”It looks very dark below.” The crew immediately turned on the camera and showed people around the world the lunar mountains and The topography of the crater. Next is the exciting scene of humans landing on the moon. Armstrong and Aldrin smiled and said to Collins:”Hey, we are leaving, we will be back soon. Wait for us, don’t leave.” Collins smiled and wished them good luck. Armstrong and Aldrin made a”V” with their fingers, and then left the lunar module.
The first to walk out of the cabin door was Commander Armstrong, who walked back down slowly and step by step along the escalator. It took 3 minutes for Armstrong to finish the 9-step spiral staircase. At 22:5:20 on July 20, Armstrong finally stepped on the moon with his left foot wearing moon boots. With great excitement, he expressed his feelings to hundreds of millions of TV viewers on the planet:”For a person, this is a small step; but for human beings, it is a big step!” At this moment, the human dream of landing on the moon is finally realized; at this moment, the moon has also become a part of the human world; at this moment, achievements belong to United States of America, but the glory belongs to the entire mankind. After 18 minutes, Aldrin also set foot on the moon and met his comrades on the moon. He was so happy that he jumped up and down on the moon and the escalator, and kept shouting:”Ah, beautiful, so beautiful!”
There is no air and no water on the moon. Desolate world. According to the survey, most of the lunar surface is covered by moon dust and rock debris. The two astronauts saw rocks of different shapes and sizes scattered everywhere, and their colors would change significantly due to different viewing angles. Observe the earth on the moon, it is a huge and luminous planet. The gravity of the moon is much smaller than that of the earth. Although wearing a heavy spacesuit, the astronaut still walks lightly. They picked up a stone and threw it lightly, but it flew far away and bounced again after landing, as if it was not a stone but a basketball that was thrown out. Seeing this scene, the two couldn’t help laughing out loud. They also set up a video camera on the moon, held a small ceremony beside the lunar module, and placed a metal commemorative plate on the moon with the engraved”July 1969, people from the earth boarded for the first time The moon, we are the representatives of all mankind, and we are here for peace.” After that, they collected 22 grams of lunar rock and soil samples and inserted an American flag woven with nylon filament near the lunar module. In order to make the Stars and Stripes look like they flutter in the wind on the windless moon, they specially used a spring-like metal wire to stretch it out. When the flag was torn apart, US President Nixon spoke with the astronauts on the moon over the phone. Commander Armstrong said excitedly:”It is our great honor to be here.” Then, they looked around. After a while, reluctantly left the surface of the moon and returned to the lunar module.
At 11:15 a.m. on July 1, the lunar module began to bid farewell to the rendezvous of the moon and the spacecraft, and it splashed down in the Southwest Pacific of Hawaii at 12:5:22 EST on July 28. So far, the first mankind’s first moon expedition flight ended successfully. By 1972, the Apollo spacecraft had sent 12 astronauts to the moon six times. In the past 10 years, the United States has spent a total of 25 billion U.S. dollars, and more than 4 million people, 1,200 experts and engineers, more than 20,000 factories and more than 120 universities have participated in this huge project. In this regard, some people expressed different views, believing that the gains of this project outweigh the losses. Perhaps the views of US President Nixon are more acceptable. He said that when a great nation ceases to explore the unknown, then it ceases to be a great country.