East-West Question | Qiangge: Where is the “new” of China’s new party system?
(Ask from East and West) Qiangge: Where is the “new” of China’s new party system?
China News Service, Beijing, August 26th. Title: Where is the “new” of China’s new party system?
The author Qiang Ge, Associate Professor of the Party Building Department of the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (National School of Administration) and Deputy Director of the Teaching and Research Office of the Principles of Party Building
Grows in Chinese soil New party system
The party system is not designed out of thin air, but is rooted in specific historical practices. Struggle has been the main line of practice that has run through since the birth of the Western political party system. As the birthplace of modern politics, the British political party system was born in the seventeenth century. Today, the Tory and Whig parties, the predecessors of the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party, have been fighting from Parliament to the battlefield for different political goals and factional interests. It has gone through decades. The civil war established a party system in which the two parties oppose each other and take turns in power. However, this political party system fell into crisis again in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. After losing the election with the new Republican Party, the old Democratic Party directly overturned the table and started the worst Civil War in American history. Under the Western party system, the ruling party and the opposition parties and even the parties within the ruling coalition have always had more hostility than goodwill, and struggle, tearing down, and sabotage surpassed cooperation. In the political changes in Europe and the United States since 2016, the confrontation of Western party systems has intensified, overloading the parliamentary system, and street politics and even bloody conflicts are repeatedly staged again.
Unlike most third world countries generally copying and copying the Western political party system, China’s new political party system is a political creation of the Communist Party of China, the Chinese people, various democratic parties, and people without party affiliation. It grew out of Chinese soil. of. Cooperation, not struggle, is the fundamental principle that runs through the more than 70 years of China’s new party system. After the Revolution of 1911, a number of modern political parties including the Communist Party of China were born in China. Although the political ideas and representative classes of these parties are different, most of them have the same goals in front of the three mountains of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucratic capitalism: national independence and national liberation.
In the course of the new democratic revolution, the Communist Party of China took the initiative to propose a united front. The democratic parties highly recognized the ideas of the Communist Party of China, actively united around the Communist Party of China, accepted the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and formed a new type of political party. The prototype of the system. In September 1949, the Political Consultative Conference initiated by the Communist Party of China in conjunction with the democratic parties and other non-party people established the basic framework of a new political party system while creating a new China. After more than 70 years of ups and downs, the Chinese Communist Party has led the democratic parties to go through arduous challenges and established the basic pattern of Communist Party leadership, multi-party cooperation, Communist Party governance, and multi-party participation in politics. The long-term existence and development of this system have been enshrined in the Constitution and realized The first hundred-year goal was achieved. Under the new political party system, the relationship between the Communist Party of China and the democratic parties is not a rivalry relationship between the ruling party and the opposition party in the Western political pedigree, but a basic policy of “long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, honour and disgrace”. The two sides are a political community that shares weal and woe. All political parties and people without party affiliation are closely united to fight for a common goal, effectively avoiding the shortcomings of lack of supervision by one party or vicious competition among multiple parties in turn.
represents the fundamentals of the most people Interests
Representation is the basic element of modern democratic politics. The original meaning of the term “Party” in English means “partial”. Therefore, any Western political party is always a representative of a certain class, a certain ethnic group, a certain region, a certain interest group, and a rivalry between two or more parties. The core goal of the sexual party system and the electoral system is to solve the problems of “who wins and who loses” and which group’s spokesperson (party) controls state power and holds more interests. It does not pursue the broadest representation and protect the fundamental interests of the majority of the people. In contrast, China’s new party system is the product of the combination of Marxist party theory and China’s reality. It can truly, broadly and lastingly represent and realize the fundamental interests of the majority of the people, the fundamental interests of all ethnic groups and all walks of life in the country, and is effective. It avoids the disadvantages of the old-style political party system representing minorities and minority interest groups. To achieve this effect, there are two key points:
One is the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China expressly stipulates that the leadership of the Communist Party of China is the most essential feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Historically, without the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the democratic parties could not achieve the national liberation goals set out at the beginning of their establishment. Today, only the leadership of the Communist Party of China can lead the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, avoid the endless struggle for interests and political struggles of different groups, protect the fundamental interests of the Chinese people, and better play the role of democratic parties and people without party affiliation.
Second, the democratic parties actively participate in politics. There are also differences in the interests of different groups in China, especially since the reform and opening up, the development of the market economy has cultivated new social classes, and the diverse demands of different groups have increased. On the one hand, the Communist Party of China is the vanguard of the working class, and it must always stand firm in its class position. On the other hand, the Communist Party of China is the vanguard of the Chinese people and the Chinese nation at the same time, and it must always represent the wider class and the most people. This requires all democratic parties and people without party affiliation to actively participate in politics under the new political party system, assist the Communist Party of China in understanding and integrating different interests and appeals, and condense the diverse and differentiated simple opinions of different groups in pursuit of a better life into the people of the whole country for China. The general will of striving for the common goal of the great national rejuvenation.
Use system convergence to promote development The greatest synergy of
In the Western party system, the stage and channels for political parties, especially non-ruling parties, are mainly Congress and elections, and there is a lack of other mechanisms and institutional arrangements for participating in national governance. Even without considering the confrontational issues of Western party systems, too few channels for political participation limit the functioning of political parties. In contrast, China’s new political party system has constructed a complete set of systematic institutional mechanisms for democratic parties and people without party affiliation to participate in national governance.
People’s congresses at all levels have widely absorbed members of democratic parties and people without party affiliation. Since 2018, more than 152,000 members of democratic parties and people without party affiliation have served as deputies to the people’s congresses at all levels. Among them, the deputy member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress There are 6 members, 44 members of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress; 32 deputy directors of the Standing Committee of the Provincial People’s Congress, 462 members of the Standing Committee of the Provincial People’s Congress; 364 deputy directors of the Standing Committee of the Municipal People’s Congress, and 2585 members of the Standing Committee of the Municipal People’s Congress. As an important institution for the realization of the new political party system, no less than 60% of the CPPCC members, 65% of the Standing Committee, and 50% of the vice chairpersons are non-party representatives.
In the people’s congresses and the CPPCC at all levels, democratic parties and people without party affiliation earnestly perform their duties as people’s representatives, participate in the administration and discussion of politics in accordance with the law, participate in the formulation and revision of constitutions and laws, participate in elections, decide and remove members of state institutions, Participate in the review and approval of national economic and social development plans and national budgets, and put forward proposals and inquiries. Actively participate in politics, discuss and make suggestions for promoting the country’s economic and social development, and play a role. In addition to the people’s congresses and the CPPCC at all levels, the Communist Party of China has also vigorously promoted deliberative democracy with Chinese characteristics in various fields, broadened and unblocked various channels for expressing interests, and ensured that decision-making respects the wishes of the majority and the reasonable requirements of the minority. This reflects The essence of people’s democracy is that “if you have something to discuss, everyone’s matters should be discussed by everyone, and the greatest common divisor of the will and requirements of the whole society can be found”.
China’s new political party system opposes both vicious party disputes, as well as one-party dictatorship and lack of supervision. The Communist Party of China actively supports all democratic parties and persons without party affiliation to carry out democratic supervision, supervises the implementation of the national constitution and laws and regulations, the formulation and implementation of important principles and policies of the Communist Party of China and the government, the Party committee of the Communist Party of China governs in accordance with the law and the performance of duties by the leading cadres of the Communist Party of China, In order to maintain a clean and honest government; build a system and mechanism for administrative agencies, supervisory agencies, judicial agencies, and procuratorial agencies to hire non-party personalities as special personnel. Now there are more than 12,700 non-party personalities serving as special personnel for relevant departments at or above the prefecture and city level; and are alleviating poverty. Tackling tough problems and other important areas actively innovate new practices of democratic supervision.
The Communist Party of China actively recommends members of democratic parties and people without party affiliation to take up leadership positions, directly participate in various specific tasks, and contribute to the promotion of national development in all aspects. In the past changes of the people’s government at all levels in China, a systematic and fixed selection mechanism for non-party cadres has been formed. At present, there are 14 non-party cadres holding leading positions in the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate and the Office of Ministries and Commissions of the State Council; 29 are deputy governors (deputy chairman, deputy mayor) and 380 deputy city (state, league) chiefs. There are 45 and 345 deputy chief procurators of the people’s courts at the provincial and municipal levels, respectively. At the same time, all democratic parties and people without party affiliation are also playing a more direct role in winning the battle against poverty, promoting major reforms, and contacting compatriots from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and overseas Chinese. For example, since 1988, the democratic parties have fully participated in poverty alleviation in Bijie City, Guizhou Province, a deeply impoverished area, and eight democratic parties have assisted the eight counties and districts of Bijie. With the joint efforts of all parties, 7 national poverty-stricken counties, 1981 poverty-stricken villages and 6.75 million poor people in Bijie City have all been lifted out of poverty.
In short, China’s new political party system not only takes root in China’s soil and demonstrates Chinese wisdom, but also actively learns from and absorbs the outstanding achievements of human political civilization. It is an important cornerstone of the Chinese model and the Chinese miracle. The second century of struggle requires the new party system to play a better role, and it is also hoped that the wisdom of China’s practice can provide more reference for the development of world political civilization. (End)
About the author: Qiang Ge, associate professor of the Party Building Department of the Central Party School (National School of Administration), and deputy director of the Party Building Principles Teaching and Research Office. The main research fields are party building theory and national governance, world party comparison, etc. There are many results in the field of theoretical research and mass communication, and many consulting reports on party building theory and American party politics have been affirmed.