The data show that there are different forms of drought in North America in 2021

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0349cbd5935bf9a - The data show that there are different forms of drought in North America in 2021

according to drought monitoring in the United States and Canada, “extreme” drought occurred for the first time in North Dakota and Manitoba in mid March 2021. By summer, extreme and “rare” droughts (the worst classification) had spread to parts of Montana, Minnesota, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Although the recent autumn rainfall has reduced the impact in some areas, in most cases, the soil is still dry

the drought in the north of the Great Plains will affect the production of crops and the feed of livestock. In assessing drought and its potential impact on agriculture, scientists looked at a series of indicators, such as precipitation, temperature, evaporation and water content in soil

Mary mitkish, assistant manager of NASA harvest project: “earth observation data can tell us that many environmental conditions affecting agricultural production occur early in the growing season and include the whole growing season. By combining satellite data with weather and other data sets, we can thoroughly monitor crop conditions and predict the expected impact on production.”

it is reported that, One of these indicators — soil moisture — is shown in the map above. Specifically, the map shows soil moisture anomalies; In other words, from October 1 to 12, 2021, how does the water content of one meter (3 feet) at the top of the soil compare with the normal situation in that year. This layer of soil is called “root zone”, which is most related to agriculture. Too little water here will hinder seed germination or plant growth

these measurements come from data collected by the soil moisture active / passive (SMAP) mission, which is NASA’s first satellite dedicated to measuring soil moisture. SMAP’s radiometer can detect water 5 cm above the soil. Scientists use the surface data in hydrological models to estimate how much water is in the root area

the second map below shows the storage of shallow groundwater, which was measured by the gravity recovery and Climate Experiment follow up (grace-fo) satellite on October 11, 2021. Compared with the water in the root area, which can respond relatively quickly to rainfall events, groundwater is a deeper resource and replenishment is slow. This deeper water source is used for crop irrigation, drinking water, and can maintain rivers during drought

The data show that there are different forms of drought in North America in 2021

the Canadian drought monitoring report said that by the end of September, 67% of Alberta was in moderate to severe drought – including 97% of the province’s agricultural land. 64% of Saskatchewan and 43% of Manitoba are in moderate to extreme drought – including 100% of agricultural land in both provinces. The high temperature and lack of rain throughout the summer led to low crop yields, especially wheat. The reduction of livestock feed has led some pastures on the Canadian prairie to dominate their herds

in the United States, the drought throughout the summer has also seriously hit the areas where spring wheat is grown. Spring wheat is harvested in late summer and early autumn. The USDA crop report shows that in mid August – probably the most critical period of spring wheat – the crop conditions in Dakota, Montana and Minnesota are mostly average to very poor

soils in parts of Iowa and Wisconsin also appear unusually dry. However, in early autumn, most of the corn crops are in good condition

how the continuous drought will affect the yield of winter wheat remains to be seen. Winter wheat is sown in autumn and harvested in spring. In autumn, almost half of the winter wheat crops grown in the United States are still facing drought