2022-07-31

The largest planet in the solar system, Jupiter, with its surging clouds, actually has oceans and lands

By yqqlm yqqlm

In the movie《Wandering the earth》The sun is about to become a red giant star

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Human beings have to take the whole earth and escape to a place 4.2 light-years awayBilin star, approachingJupiter时,Jupiter强大的引力几乎要把整颗地球都吸了过去,甚至地球的大气都开始被Jupiter吸收,最后人类为了保全地球,点燃了Jupiter。

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Except for the shockingPlanetary engineoutside,Jupiter也备受人类关注。

Planets in the solar system can be divided into rocky planets andGaseous planetThe former includes mercury, Venus and earth,Mars,后者则有Jupiter,SaturnUranusandNeptune其中Jupiter的质量最大。

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according toNASA的粗略估算,Jupiter的质量等于太阳系内所有其他行星的两倍以上,体积更是能够容纳1300个地球,如果说Jupiter是足球大小,那么地球就相当于一颗小石子一样The reason why it is so huge is that it is agas giant

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既然Jupiter主要由气体组成,Can astronauts land smoothly on the surface?

If forced landing,会不会直接掉进Jupiter的内核呢?

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Jupiter又为何被科学家称为The most terrible planet in the solar system?

由于Jupiter的体积巨大,离太阳也不远,在晴朗的夜空中用肉眼就能看见它,所以Jupiter自古以来就为人所知。

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As early asBabylon时期,人们就把Jupiter定义为天神Marduk,到了1610年伽利略最早开始使用仪器对Jupiter进行观测,不过由于望远镜还在初期发展阶段,所以观测最多的还是Jupiter云带,并发现了围绕在Jupiter周围的四颗satellite

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1972年3月,NASA发射了首颗Jupiter探测器Pioneer 10,随后又接连发射了更多探测器,对Jupiter也有了更详细的了解,不同于其他由岩石组成的天体,Jupiter是一颗主要由methaneheliumhydrogen以及各种冰态物质组成的gas giant 。

也正因如此,虽然Jupiter的体积and质量巨大,But the density is very small, not even as high as the earth.

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不过毕竟质量放在那里,在它的强大引力下,Jupiter拥有众多的satellite以及由宇宙尘埃and碎石组成的尘埃环,比较熟知的如EuropaGanymedeCallisto 12,在早期的探测计划中,还发现了Jupiter强大的磁场and辐射带。

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探测数据显示,Jupiter的magnetic field intensityIt is more than ten times that of the earth and the planet with the strongest magnetic field in the solar system,如此强大的磁场源于Jupiter核心的液态Metal hydrogen,在运动过程中形成了磁场。Jupiter的磁场范围达到了Jupiter周围140万-700万千米,这能保护Jupiter的气层不被solar windScrape away.

对于人类而言,Jupiter则是极其危险的

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20世纪末,美国航天局发射了伽利略号探测器。在Jupiter强大的引力下,探测器的下降速度远远超过了科学家的设想,导致探测器在and大气层的摩擦过程中产生了1.5万摄氏度的高温,由于Jupiter的气层非常厚,探测进入云层表面时承受的压强超过了20个大气压,短短几分钟之内,探测器就与地球失联了。

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假如人降落到Jupiter上,又会发生什么?

虽然我们常说Jupiter是Gaseous planet,但它并不是完全以气体组成,Gaseous planet指的是主要成分为气体,但依然拥有固态的内核。

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当我们进入Jupiter时,并不会看到像地球一样明显的地表,而是感觉像悬在空中一样,进入云层向下90公里后,就到达了Jupiter大气层中troposphereBottom ofThe pressure here is 10 times that of the earth. Without professional protective facilities, people cannot survive under such pressure.

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接着再往下,随着压强的增加,hydrogenandhelium开始被压缩成液体,大约在Jupiter云层顶端下6000公里处,物质基本都变成了液体,放眼望去可能更像地球上起雾的海面,因为气体and液体的分界线不是特别明显。

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当我们接着往下,继续下潜8000公里左右,就到达了Jupiter的核心,这里的压强达到了3000-4500Gpa,这样的压强下,液态的hydrogen变成了固态的Metal hydrogenThe temperature reached more than 30000 degrees Celsius,不过这里也没有明显的固态分界线,还是液态and固态融合在一起。

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所以如果人类真的降落到Jupiter上,There is still solid ground to stand on,只不过在极高的温度and压强下,需要极为先进的宇航服才能承受。

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p data-track=”25″>目前我们对Jupiter的了解还仅限于皮毛,它还有很多未知,比如Jupiter的巨大的气态风暴,像一只眼睛一样注视着整个太阳系,Scientists have so far been unable to develop a reasonable model of stormsHowever, science and technology are always improving. One day, human beings will know the solar system like the palm of their hand until they go to the deeper universe.